The history of computers essay

Publicado em Agosto 2017

It is often use in place where several people have to work at the same time, so it let many users use data at the same time without any inconvenient. Supermarket scanners calculate our grocery bill while keeping store inventory; computerized telephone switching centers play traffic cop to millions of calls and keep lines of communication untangled; and automatic teller machines the history of computers essay (ATM) let us conduct banking transactions form virtually anywhere in the world. Whether the effect is negative or positive, computers control nearly every aspect of our everyday life. The 1890 census was completed in one-third the time taken in 1880, reading errors were reduced and work flow increased (Campbell-Kelly, 20-21). The increase in Cyber crime, pornographic websites, false identity leading to trapping of youngsters and many more. The memory of the computer is so vast that it could hold in a taking an online class large amount of data. This type of computer can work for long period without being interrupted, they are reliable. Mini computers are not only used in organization for work but many of mini computers are also used as personal computer. At home, the most popular use for microcomputers is for playing games and recently for surfing the Internet. Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is Cray Research. In 1890, Herman Hollerith designed a punch card system to calculate the 1880 census. These computers used electromechanical devices in which electric power... Notebook computers use a variety of techniques, known as flat-panel technologies, to produce a lightweight and non-bulky display screen. There is no noun with the ability to represent modern life other than computer. The use of... Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation. With the Internet, nothing is impossible today. It can run multiple different instance of different operating system and can handle the work of many users at the same time. The quality of notebook display screens varies considerably. The computers have been a dominating factor since the 1970`s and today it has conquered almost all walks of life. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for input are often called hand-held computers or PDAs. The next significant advance of computing started with a man named Blaise Pascal, nearly twelve centuries ensuing the invention of the Abacus. Apart from acquiring information, one could stay connected to friends and family, a great platform for business expansions, purchasing, studying and the list just goes on, it is endless. Then we have the minicomputer which becomes more and more personal and sophisticated for users. Some of the languages are BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA are a few to name. All of this amazing technology started over five thousand years ago and continues to grow with an unknown culmination. However, the history of computers essay all this power in a small package is expensive. What we now call the Roman abacus was used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. " It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. What characterized these earliest machines is that the switching and control functions were handled by vacuum tubes. The most popular hand-held computers are those that are specifically designed to provide PIM (personal information manager) functions, such write 5 paragraph essay as a calendar and address book. Because of mainframe's ability to handle high level data transactions they are used by the biggest firms in almost all the industry such as banks, government agencies and organizations which need to store great volume of complex and important data at a high security level, which means that this is the most secure than other type of computer. In another hand we have the Mainframe Computer which is quite expensive than the Mini computer. CONCLUSION After all we can say that computer has made his way since 19xx. However, these pen-based devices rely on handwriting write an essay outline recognition technologies, which are still the history of computers essay in their infancy. It requires trained staff to can handle and use the supercomputer and it may only be good for specific application. In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Because these computers run all day along with 24x7x365 ability, a large amount of heat generated must be expelled. Programming is defined as a set of instructions allotted to the computer that accepts it in order to solve a problem. It was the fusion of automatic calculation and programmability that produced the first computers that were recognized in 1837. Calculations had to be done accurately and mathematically and without an advanced machine it would not be possible. Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s. Computers have become the backbone of Information Technology and a major application in this sector is the Internet. Pascal went on to invent probability theory, the hydraulic press, and the syringe. In the years between 1940 and 1945 were the first electronic digital computers developed. Typically, mini computers have been stand-alone computers sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business applications and to large enterprises for department-level operations. A portable computer that is small enough to be held in one's hand. Due to limited finances and inability of resisting tinkering with the design, he could not complete his work and it was later completed by his son Henry Babbage who made it into a simplified version of the analytical engine’s computing unit. To run a computer, it is the programming that decides and it should be run in a computer. In 1822, English mathematician Charles Babbage had an idea of a steam driven calculating system that could compute tables of numbers. Computerization in almost all sectors, have created job opening for thousands. Charles Babbage in 1837 was the first to introduce and design a fully programmed mechanical computer, his analytical engine. S. Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume input and output and emphasize throughput computing. Copyright © 2003 - 2017 - UK Essays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. He established a company that would soon become IBM1. It is a computer of a size intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe computer and includes a microprocessor, memory, input and output facility and it comes equipped with at least one type of data storage, usually RAM. The first computer was produced by the Moore School of Engineering called the ENIAC, on behalf of the US Army which was in 1946. At every generations of the computers or in fact during the evolution, each time computers are being launched that are lighter, smaller, speedier and more powerful. The first computers were punch card based computers that took up entire rooms. V. A computer designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been the history of computers essay invented. The history of the Computer started about 2000 years ago with the abacus. A skilled abacus operator can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a person equipped with a hand calculator. " dj dlux the resume Average home computers can perform up to a hundred billion of these operations per second, or 100 "gigaflops. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money. The abacus was early used for arithmetic tasks. In 1890 Herman Hollerith and James Powers, who worked for the U. Notebook is extremely lightweight personal computer. For example, a supercomputer could spend months performing calculations to support research on climate change or to help cure a disease, presenting a disadvantage to people who are in a hurry for quick results. Among the self-protection measures commonly found in mainframes are an enhanced heat-protection mechanism. Only scientists and mathematicians can operate them. C. Their process increased more than 100 times and finally when the famous supercomputer comes which is 1000 times more powerful than the predecessor. His machine was capable of reading the punched holes in cards, just as the loom did (Campbell-Kelly, 15-17). Because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices. The primary advantage that supercomputers offer is decreased processing time. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to run them without plugging them in. In fact, the oldest surviving abacus write me a book report was used in 300 B. It is high power consumption, it use a lot of electricity, for instance, about millions Rupees in a year. There are many different languages that are being used to program a computer. Company Registration No: 4964706. The personal computer in the beginning was not intended to be used for personal entertainment or for email, but was intended to be used for solving a number-crunching crisis. Census Bureau, developed devices that could read the information that had been punched into cards. Around five thousand years ago in Asia minor, a simple machine bearing a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack such as ones found in a pool hall may be considered the first computer. This is in contrast to desktop models, in which these components are housed in a more compact box. Test, development, training, and production workload for applications and databases can run on a single machine, except for extremely large demands where the capacity of one machine might be limiting. Normally, a computer consists of a processing unit called the Central Processing Unit or the CPU and a form of memory. The first was a calculating machine funded by the English government. The ENIAC was able to produce the firing tables, by carrying out large number of calculations accurately. The abacus is still in use today, principally in the far east. These advantages were seen by commercial companies and soon led to the development of improved punch-card using computers created by IBM and Remington. Palmtops are also called PDAs, hand-held computers and pocket computers. Another type of computer is Micro Computer which is design to support more than one user at a time but it can be used by one person at a time. By the Babylonians. However, in time the demand for increased computational power ushered in the age of massively parallel systems. VAT Registration No: 842417633. To defend the enemy , the front line soldiers required firing tables and only a computer could produce such firing tables with speed and accuracy at that time. Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall. With the introduction of computers, attaining information has become a lot more easier. They are used for weather forecasting, animation graphics... In petrochemical prospecting). Up until the present age when car dashboards went digital, the odometer portion of a car's speedometer used the very same mechanism as the Pascaline to increment the next wheel after each full revolution of the prior wheel. Shown below is an 8 digit version of the Pascaline. They have the same CPUs, memory capacity, and disk drives. The term RAS (reliability, availability and serviceability) is a defining characteristic of the mainframe computer. Businesses use microcomputers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spread sheet and database management applications. Computers are being used for various purposes today like weather forecasting, machinery operations, guidance of spacecraft and technology. A simple explanation of the the history of computers essay computer. Some manufacturers are trying to solve the small keyboard problem by replacing the keyboard with an electronic pen. During the World War II, it became very essential to understand and locate the direction and speed of the enemy weapons. Microcomputer or personal computer can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. They are huge computers installed in space centers, nuclear power stations etc. To ameliorate... " Supercomputers, however, are tens of thousands of times faster, meaning that calculations that would take your home computer hours or days can be solved by a supercomputer in a matter of seconds. Pascal built 50 of this gear-driven one-function calculator but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate. It is a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them and was one of the best calculating machines until the seventeenth century (PBS, 1). They are having huge memories & tremendous processing speed. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations. The abacus is often wrongly attributed to China. And nowadays with the great evolution we have four type of computer. The term refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. Merchants used the Abacus to record their barter transactions. Unlike ordinary desktop computers that may finish calculating a problem in a few minutes or phd thesis dedication page overnight, supercomputers work on tasks that require intensive calculations which can take extremely long periods to complete. The fans in mainframe computers are among the most efficient helping in keeping the data centers cool. However, the batteries need to be recharged every few hours. 6. Early supercomputer architectures pioneered by Seymour Cray relied on compact innovative designs and local parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. It has a large cheap array of silicon logic gate which allows utility programs and self-booting kernel to be stored within microcomputers. They are used for performing complex mathematical calculations. These stored programs let the minicomputer to automatically load further more complex software from external storage device without the user intervention. Hand-held computers are also called PDAs, palmtops and pocket computers. Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. There have no great difference between mainframe computers because like the mainframe it takes up a large space and cost very high. They contain a large number of self-maintenance features, including built-in security features and high data handling capacity. Compared to full-size computers, palmtops are severely limited, but they are practical for certain functions such as phone books and calendars. Other uses of supercomputers scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e. At the age of 12, he was discovered doing his version of Euclid's thirty-second proposition on the kitchen floor. With all the positives that one could acquire and seize, the negative side is also large. Every year there are thousands of students step out from universities and colleges across the globe into the world of computer technology and this youth is what is tomorrow’s assets in getting technology into the next level of advancement. To produce the technology then, high sums of money and brain power was required. They were looking for a faster and more efficient way to get the results. They are usually protected by multiple levels of security and power backup, both internal and external. It comes with more performance and more memory with high security level. research paper However, many contain PCMCIA slots in which you can insert disk drives, modems, memory, and other devices. Notebook computers cost about twice as much as equivalent regular-sized computers. Over a period of time computers have evolved and toady with the Artificial Intelligence technology, we use the most advanced kind of computers that have helped man in every sectors of life. Computer speed is commonly measured in "floating point operations," or "FLOPS. By 1880, the United States had grown so much that it took several years to calculate the United States census results. In 1835, English inventor, Charles Babbage came up with the idea of the Analytical Machine, a general purpose, fully programmed-controlled, automatic mechanical digital computer, which consisted of two parts, a calculating section and a storage section. Its popularity began to fall when the use of paper and pencil spread particularly throughout Europe, its importance diminished. Desktop models designed to be very small are sometimes referred to as slim line models. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Pascal was a child prodigy. The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613 in a book called "The young man's gleanings" by English writer Richard Braithwaite" I have read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that ever breathed, and he reduced thy days into a short number. Yet , the advantages are more outnumbered and there are many preventive measures also introduced to stop the negative aspects. Computers have evolved from bearing the role of strictly computing to having the ability of completing unthinkable tasks. Palmtop is small computer that literally fits in your palm. Because of their small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives. In terms of computing power, modern notebook computers are nearly equivalent to personal computers. The initial sizes were as big as a room and consumed power as much as today’s personal computers. All these are possible only because of the characteristics that a computer posses like speedy, accuracy, reliability and integrity. Long before computers were invented, humans realized the need for them. Apart from these in the medical sector, it provides a great helping hand in storing information that could be referred later, in space technology, automation in banks, ticket booking through the net, traffic control, and even games could be played in computers on and many more. Notebook computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones. It makes great progress when the mainframe computer comes in 19xx (put the date). The main advantage of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints, which makes installation of additional storage devices easier. It could executive over a billion instructions per second without committing any mistakes is completely reliable. A modern abacus consists of rings that slide over rods, but the older one pictured below dates from the time when pebbles were used for counting (the word "calculus" comes from the Latin word for pebble). Although extremely convenient to carry, handheld computers have not replaced notebook computers because of their small keyboards and screens. The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand, which was originally obtained from a printed table. With every positive, there is a negative and the same is applicable with computers also. It wasn’t until 1941 when J. Computer education has been introduced at school levels and in primary classes, as such is the importance of acquiring the knowledge of computers. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching). The original objective of inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating machine. In 1617 an eccentric Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms, which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics, and his graduate student, Clifford Berry, essay on helping others designed a computer that was the first to be able to store information on its main memory. G. Mini computers were designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping. Aside from size, the principal difference between a notebook computer and a personal computer is the display screen. In the late 1950's the bulky the history of computers essay and hot vacuum tubes were replaced in computer designs by smaller, more reliable solid state transistors. The early computers were limited in their functions. The information was recorded by a machine equipped with many metal pins that poked through the punched holes but stopped where no holes existed. Essay on The History and Development of Computers ... It is known as the Abacus and is still in use today. They have great storage the history of computers essay capacity and work at a high speed rate. It has begun with the microcomputer which consisted of simple technology. In comparison the mainframe computer perform better than the mini computer, it can process data at a very high speed rate, for example, millions of instruction per second and Compared to a typical PC, mainframes commonly have hundreds to thousands of times as much data storage online, and can access it much faster. Pascal was an eighteen year-old son of a French tax collector in the early seventeenth century.