Phd thesis diagram

Publicado em Agosto 2017

In phd thesis diagram this thesis a new CHI-approach was developed, called CHI-P (Parameter), which applies coupling constraints between the geophysical and hydrologic model parameters. Analytical solutions for many different types of well flow in single aquifers are known and used for pumping test analysis, while only few solutions for two-aquifer systems are available. Careful analysis of groundwater level fluctuations may reveal much of the functioning of systems, and of the effects of individual factors. This PhD research looks at enabling stakeholders to make and use two-dimensional, still (non-moving) visuals to help identify which differences and similarities there are in stakeholders’ ideas of the problem situation and possible solutions. Extreme rainfall events can have a large impact on society and can lead to loss of life and property. The thesis further outlines the implications of these findings for freshwater management in the Netherlands. The lack of a proper solution for multi-aquifer systems was felt as an omission in well flow theory. Because many urbanized areas deal with contaminated soil and groundwater, groundwater movement induced by the ATES system can result in increased mobility and spreading of these contaminants. Over Europe, North America and Asia, severe hydrological drought conditions are driven by increasing consumptive water use rather than to be merely induced by climate variability; the magnitude of droughts intensified by 10–500%. In this thesis, the effects of climate change on the decomposition of peat soils in the Netherlands are explored, focussing on the effects of summer drought and salinisation on peat decomposition. Both types of measures may aid to reduce flood and drought risk to an acceptable level. Throughout this research, the distinction is made between peat that was formed in minerotrophic versus oligotrophic conditions (fen and bog peat) and between two types of land use (agriculture and nature management). Topics covered include a paleo-hydrogeological model simulation of the Holocene evolution of groundwater salinity as a result of paleo-geographic changes; surface water salinity dynamics in a densely-drained lowland catchment; hydrograph separation in an agricultural catchment; observations of heads, flow, solute concentration and temperature to constrain a detailed, variable-density groundwater flow and transport model; and a model to simulate the salinity dynamics of exfiltrating groundwater to support operational water management of freshwater resources in coastal lowlands. In this thesis, a new method of time series analysis is presented. In view of these problems, knowledge of the interaction between vegetation, soil moisture and surface runoff, with subsequent erosion risk is essential. The Blue Water Sustainability Index revealed an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources (~30%) worldwide. During dry summers, surface water originating from rivers or lakes is supplied to peat areas to prevent drying out of the soils and limit decomposition. The downside of these practices is the oxidation of the organic soil, which leads to subsidence and associated desiccation of nature reserves, emission of greenhouse gasses, deterioration of surface water quality, increasing costs for water management and infrastructural maintenance, damage to building foundations, and, in the end, loss of the characteristic landscape. The global groundwater footprint was found to be 3. In low-lying coastal areas that lie below mean sea level, saline groundwater may reach the surface by upward groundwater flow. This method shows that it is cost-effective to allow a limited amount of thermal interference, such that 30–40% more energy can be provided than compared to the case in which all negative thermal interference is avoided. In this thesis the possible impact of sea-level rise and human activities on vulnerable coastal groundwater flow regimes in the Netherlands for the next millennium is investigated. The speci fic objectives are to: 4. Instead of using the measured geophysical and hydrologic data simultaneously in one inversion approach, many of the previous studies apply a Sequential Hydrogeophysical Inversion (SHI) in which inverted geophysical models provide information for hydrologic models. This thesis describes the development and application of methods that allow to combine the scarce data, available in poorly gauged catchments, with expert knowledge and modern satellite data, with the purpose to conceptualise, calibrate and validate hydrological models. phd thesis diagram Especially farmers in semi-arid zones are in need of such information. At present, design rules are applied in such way that all negative interference is avoided. Column and batch experiments), but a part of this work focused on the transport characteristics of E. This dissertation addresses the problem of adequately describing the hydraulic behavior of a heterogeneous aquifer, specifically the flow towards a well. This thesis deals with the hydrology and nutrient cycling of tropical plantation forest in Java. E. Saline groundwater exfiltration is a common problem in the coastal zone of the Netherlands, but the hydrological processes and physiographic factors that affect this are not fully understood. G. In order to capture such effects, climate-dependent processes that directly affect vegetation should be analysed. Such a climatology can be obtained by abstracting maxima from long rainfall records. Additionally, the possibility of using public participation to gather information with mobile phones to improve models is also explored in the research. Freshwater lenses are convex bodies of fresh groundwater that are underlain by groundwater with a significant higher salinity. The effect of climate change on moisture-related plant stresses is complex; both wet and dry extremes may be affected, and conditions that are not present under the current climatic conditions could occur in the future. Integrated modeling and indicators of global water resources. Ideally they work collectively towards finding a solution to a problem situation. In coastal areas, freshwater lenses are of vital importance for ecosystems and freshwater supply. Visuals could provide a better understanding of a subject than words alone could. The contribution of groundwater depletion to sea-level increased by more than ten-fold over 1900–2000, and is projected to increase further by 2050. Due to the importance of Escherichia coli (E. Furthermore, it was recommended to stop adapting groundwater levels to the subsiding soil surface level in order to make a gradual transition to peatland regions with virtually no subsidence, which could result in profitable agricultural businesses with lower societal costs, less greenhouse gas emissions and better water quality. Next, the thesis assesses global groundwater resources by estimating groundwater recharge and abstraction. Across Syria, rivers are shrinking, springs have dried up, and the desert is spreading. Therefore, a reliable climatology of extreme rainfall is of importance, for instance, for the design of hydraulic structures. , the invasion of saline groundwater into a fresh groundwater body. phd thesis diagram Relate selected catchment physiographic attributes and two important baseflow characteristics using a global streamflow dataset consisting of 3520 catchments, and examine the feasability of producing global maps of these baseflow characteristics using an artifi cial neural network approach (chapter 5) To achieve these speci c objectives, use is made of large observational datasets which have become available free of charge thanks to organizations such as the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC; Koblenz, Germany), the U. More than 50% of world’s population lives in coastal areas and is largely dependent on fresh groundwater resources for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Coli strains could possibly be characterized by a similar set of transport parameters. Application of ATES, instead of traditional heating and cooling installations, reduces primary energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. As time series models essay writing service reviews uk are usually accurate also, they may be valuable to every (eco)hydrologist. Therefore the uncertainty of the forecasts and the associated risks of applying Anticipatory Water Management have to be assessed. Anticipatory actions may have adverse effects, such as when flood control actions turn out to have been unnecessary, because the actual rainfall was less than predicted. Climate change and future rise in sea level are expected to increase saline seepage and reduce the availability of both fresh surface water and groundwater. Human impacts on terrestrial phd thesis diagram water storage signals were evident in the validation with GRACE satellite observation, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability over heavily regulated and intense irrigated basins. We refer to this methodology as CHI-S world hunger research paper (State). GHM dominates the uncertainty throughout the century, but GCM uncertainty substantially increases from the mid-century. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to develop analytical solutions that can be used for determining geohydrological properties from pumping tests in layered aquifer systems. Such data sets can provide valuable information to improve hydrologic models. The deviation of bacteria transport and deposition patterns on grains in porous media from theory has resulted in the inability to accurately predict transport distances in aquifers, with consequences of polluting drinking water sources (springs, boreholes and wells). Ploughing and the cultivation of deeply rooting crops should be minimised. A 2-D model simulating density-dependent groundwater flow and coupled solute transport model is used. Therefore, over the past decades, water management has shifted to a risk-based approach. This process is referred to as «saline seepage» and is the main subject of this PhD thesis. The influence of preferential flow thereupon is nowadays widely recognized. In the Netherlands, these stresses will also have a severe impact on the fresh coastal groundwater reserves. Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is applied world-wide to provide heating and cooling to buildings. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. This is one of the key questions Francesca de Châtel explores in «Vanishing Water Landscapes in the Middle East», a study that combines extensive study on the ground in pre-conflict Syria and across the region with historic data to show how high population growth, overambitious agricultural development projects and uncontrolled water use over the last 60 years have irreversibly disrupted the Middle East's fragile ecological balance. Subsequently, a probability distribution is fitted to the selected maxima, so that rainfall depths can be estimated for a chosen return period, which can be longer than the rainfall record. The spatial patterns that emerge in the results of multiple models literally add another dimension to the technique. The final objective of this research is to characterize a heterogeneous aquifer in order to better describe contaminant flow; many of the findings are also applicable to the recovery of oil from heterogeneous reservoirs. Important variables such as rainfall, evaporation, radiation, soil moisture and water storage can nowadays be estimated on the basis of raw satellite observations. In this thesis, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution is used to model annual rainfall maxima. The results of this research demonstrate that monitoring networks can be evaluated and designed by considering new variables, such as the information content, the user of the information and the potential of current mobile phones for data collection. The aim is to move away from the reporting of the idiosyncrasies of single sites or catchments which has dominated so much of the older hydrological literature, and instead attempt to identify robust, generalizable relationships applicable to diff erent environments worldwide. Therefore in this thesis the role of preferential flow from plot scale to catchment scale on the hydrology is investigated, using field measurements and model applications. This study shows that quantifying and understanding the response of temperate forest ecosystems to climate change requires combined physically-based hydrological and bio-physically-based vegetation models. It is shown that groundwater level responses generally take the shape of simple distribution functions. Unexpectedly, no uniform effect of land use or peat origin on respiration rates was found. For instance, freshwater storage and subsurface drainage could reduce the effects of summer phd thesis diagram droughts. The focus is on the distribution of fresh and saline groundwater, the volumes of freshwater lenses in the dunes and the seepage and salt load to polders. The impact of sea-level rise is also discussed in indicative terms for three water management sectors: (1) domestic and industrial water supply from coastal sand-dunes, (2) flushing of water courses of low-lying polders and (3) agriculture in terms of salt damage. It includes information on rainfall interception, evaporation and stream runoff, as well as the associated fluxes of nutrients. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO 2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise and change in precipitation regime, which will affect hydrological and vegetation systems. By providing probabilistic forecasts. Predicting effects of future changes, defining effective water management strategies for a climate proof sustainable freshwater supply and successful implementation of any measure are only meaningful when all relevant processes involving saline seepage are fully understood. Despite structural measures to prevent flooding and water shortage, 100% protection can never be provided. Decision making processes that are set-up to be participatory require stakeholders with different backgrounds, ideas, experiences and expertise to come together. However, in many coastal areas, groundwater is brackish to saline which may pose problems for the sustainable exploitation of fresh groundwater. This book presents innovative methods to design and evaluate monitoring networks. In view of this, a research project aimed at (1) Improving the insight into the modeling of freshwater lenses and (2) defining measures to increase freshwater supply from freshwater lenses. Since groundwater flow is a slow process, the consequences for the next thousand years are considered. It is to be expected that sea-level rise intensifies this salinisation process. This thesis addresses the development of climate-proof relationships between soil moisture conditions and vegetation, and shows that the use of correlative, indirect relationships between site factors and vegetation should be discouraged. The effectiveness of early warning, however, is affected by forecasting uncertainty: the impossibility of knowing, in advance, the exact future state of hydrological systems.  Saline seepage leads to the salinization of surface waters, shallow groundwater and soil water in the root zone. This means that policies do not only aim at reducing the probability of occurrence of floods and droughts, but also include actions to limit the consequences of potential flooding or water shortage. Monitoring networks provide data that is analysed to help managers make informed decisions about their water systems. This study formed the start of Sampurno’s great hydrological research career in the tropics. Coli) as an indicator research paper service industry of faecal contamination of drinking water supplies, this thesis research focused on their transport in saturated porous media. The underlying hypothesis was that transport by a group of E. In this thesis, subsurface heat transport in ATES and the influence on storage performance for thermal energy was assessed. Because of climate change, it is expected that dry summers will occur more often. The aquifer stress indicator revealed that ~8% of transboundary aquifers are currently stressed due to human overexploitation. Heat transport modelling shows that heterogeneity causes preferential flow paths that can affect thermal interference between systems, mainly depending on well-to-well distance and hydrogeological conditions. Furthermore, in the future saltwater intrusion is expected to increase due to sea level rise, climate change, land subsidence, and increasing population density in coastal areas. Therefore, an adequate hydrogeological description still encompasses a range of possible aquifer responses. S. Flow in multi-aquifer systems was investigated during the years 1979 to 1986 and, more recently, the same solution method was further developed to investigate flow near wells in multi-layered aquifers. Global assessment of groundwater resources; Part 3. Flood early warning systems provide a potentially highly effective flood risk reduction measure. Its continuous time formulation fits existing physical-hydrologic theory and methods well. This notion, combined with the program Menyanthes that was developed, enable the quick and easy analysis of large numbers of time series. However, during prolonged summer droughts, the river water has a poor quality and may become slightly brackish because of saltwater intrusion and evaporation. The present dissertation describes research in estimating the value of probabilistic forecasts as well as in skill improvement of estimates of predictive uncertainty. To comprehensively assess global water resources, an improved approach was introduced. This dissertation presents ways of improving the end-use of ensemble predictions in Anticipatory Water Management. The research focused on the preferential saline seepage through boils leading to surface water salinization (Part I) and the interaction between thin rainwater lenses and saline seepage leading to the salinization of shallow groundwater and the root zone (Part II). Thus, this dissertation aims at integrating and combining several direct and indirect methods to identify the aquifer’s structure and to analyze the associated groundwater flow and solute transport behavior. This is done through the combination of models and phd thesis diagram two theoretical concepts: Information Theory, initially developed in the field of communications, and Value of Information, initially developed in the field of economics. 5 times the actual area of aquifers driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. Current CHI-research has been focussing on the translation of simulated state variables of hydrologic models to geophysical model parameters. Global groundwater depletion was found to triple in size over the last 50 years, and contributes ~20% to irrigation water supply. The Green Water Stress Index is capable of reproducing varying degrees of green water stress conditions, reflecting a multi-decadal climate variability. Most of this research was carried out under laboratory conditions (e. To facilitate this assessment, meteorological institutes are providing ensemble predictions to estimate the dynamic uncertainty of weather forecasts. Human and climate impacts on surface freshwater resources; Part 2. How can this gap between the reality of growing scarcity on the ground and the continued illusion of plenty be explained? The objectives were to (i) study inter-strain and intra-strain attachment variability among multiple E. The main tree species of the stands were: Scots pine, poplar, oak, larch and at one site a mixture of pine, birch, beech and phd research proposal environmental chemistry oak. Peatlands cover a small part of the earth surface but hold vast amounts of carbon. Subsidence rates were modelled for various case study areas and adaptations measured were explored with local stakeholders, resulting in several options for adaptive peatland management. Horace, however, wrote that »the mind is more slowly stirred by the ear than by the eye«. This is shown by many, but practiced by too few, as traditional time series analysis theory and software are complex. The study was carried out in two separate periods.  This thesis describes the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of salinization processes involving saline seepage in deltaic areas. By providing such analysis, this research contributes to one of the required improvements of habitat distribution models. Groundwater the best persuasive speeches stress was then assessed using newly developed indicators considering groundwater contribution to environment. The thesis is composed of three major parts: Part 1. The increase in irrigation demand varies substantially depending on the degree of global warming and associated regional precipitation changes. This is particularly true for the ungauged Makanya catchment in Tanzania, which is the subject of this study. However, the combination between ATES and soil and groundwater remediation could be a promising integrated technique, both for improving groundwater quality and development of ATES. Importantly, groundwater depletion was found to be an important contributor to sea-level rise and is likely to dominate over those of other terrestrial water sources. As a result, understanding the key-hydrological processes, and determination of the frequencies and magnitudes of stream flows, is very important for local food production. The peatlands in the Netherlands have a long history of drainage to facilitate agriculture. Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and essays against abortion droughts. Early warning systems benefit from estimation of predictive uncertainties, i. Increased water demand was found to be a decisive factor for heightened water stress in various regions, while climate variability is often a main determinant of extreme events. The main objective of this research was to design a methodology which enables stakeholders to make and use visuals to communicate their ideas about redevelopment and maintenance of small water structures. The general objectives of this thesis are to relate streamflow characteristics and catchment physiographic attributes over a wide range of catchment and climatic conditions, and to determine the value of speci c satellite remote-sensing products for use in meso- and macroscale hydrological modeling. This thesis provides a quantitative framework for studying eco-hydrology in groundwater influenced temperate ecosystems. In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Their design and phd thesis diagram evaluation have a number of challenges that must be resolved, among others, the restriction on having a limited number of monitoring devices. In order to improve vegetation predictions for the future climate, process-based and climate-proof relationships between site factors and vegetation are needed. In many coastal areas saltwater intrusion has led to well closure and reduced freshwater supply. This is called Anticipatory Water Management. Coli strains, (ii) characterize the distribution of sticking efficiencies within cell populations (iii) develop a methodology to measure minimum values of sticking efficiencies, and (iv) to assess the contribution of various cell properties on bacterial attachment to quartz grains. Pumping tests in the Netherlands have shown that sometimes four or more aquifers are involved. Over past decades, phd thesis diagram terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans do make homework have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. Discussions take place and ideas are expressed in words or text as each stakeholder tries to explain his view of the situation and possible solution. In redevelopment and redesign of small water structures local water governing institutions are increasingly required to and requesting that the planning processes are set up in a participatory manner. Intensified use of the subsurface for thermal applications requires more accurate methods to measure and predict the development of thermal plumes in the subsurface related to thermal interference between systems and address issues concerning subsurface urban planning and wide spread presence of contaminants in urban groundwater systems. The newly developed model together with other six state-of-the-art GHMs was applied to simulate future irrigation water demand using the latest CMIP5 climate projections. In the final part of this thesis, an improved modeling framework that dynamically simulates daily water use per source per sector was developed. A major problem of sustaining freshwater supply from freshwater lens is saltwater intrusion, i. Land use change and climate change can turn this large carbon sink into a carbon source, thereby generating a positive feedback for climate change. Therefore, the use of weather forecast information with hydrological models can be invaluable for the operational water manager to expand the forecast horizon and to have time to take appropriate action. The focus of this work is deterministic models of saturated groundwater flow in layered aquifer systems. This requires mapping of the spatial and temporal variability of infiltration and runoff production. The measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity. We showed that oxygenation of deep peat layers that had not previously been exposed to air led to acceleration of decomposition; moreover, this effect is still measurable in the period after such a dry summer. Typically for a subsurface problem, the quantity of available data versus the number of unknowns, is very limited. E. Thus, a broad approach has been followed to obtain a more or less, reliable estimation of the range of possible aquifer responses within a limited spectrum of sedimentological options. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuation of local inhabitants. In order to ful ll these general objectives, fi ve speci fic objectives have been defi ned, which are addressed in separate chapters. Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Coli strains isolated at the termination point of groundwater flow lines (springs) in Kampala, Uganda. Forests are complex ecosystems with a large variability in the horizontal as well as in the vertical space. Inter and Intra-seasonal rainfall variability is large in these areas, and farmers depend more and more on additional surface and groundwater resources for their crop production. Because of their differences stakeholders often have different ideas about the problem situation and about the ways to solve it. This broad approach includes the following methods: sedimentological analysis; multi-well and single-well pumping tests; tracer experiments; geostatistics; and numerical modeling of groundwater flow. The main idea is to maximise the performance of water systems by optimising the information content that can be obtained from monitoring networks. These two processes were identified as important contributors to the salinization of the Dutch delta which was the study area of this PhD research. Detailed monitoring of subsurface temperature development around the wells of an existing system was achieved by a unique application of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using glass fibre optical cables. The thesis first explores the human and climate impacts on seasonal surface freshwater resources by forcing the global hydrological model PCR‐GLOBWB with daily meteorological fields and by calculating global monthly water demands with the effects of socio-economic and land use change. The main result is that a severe (irreversible) salinisation process, which is generated by human activities such as the reclamation of the (low-lying) polders during the past centuries, already occurs in the groundwater flow regimes along the Dutch coast, independent of sea-level rise. The term ‘layered aquifer system’ is used to denote two types of system: a) a system of multiple aquifers or multi-aquifer system which comprises a series of aquifers separated by confining layers, and b) a vertically heterogeneous, stratified or multi-layered aquifer which is a single aquifer composed of a number of sublayers. Feasible countermeasures may, to some extent, retard (but not stop) this salinisation process. Opportunities to use ATES as a continuous biostimulation tool for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) have been explored with a reactive transport model. The water crisis in the Middle East, the most water-scarce region in the world, is rapidly worsening, yet decision-makers appear unwilling to acknowledge its severity and water remains low on the political agenda. The Jordan River has been reduced to 2% of its historic size and is heavily polluted. We showed that salinisation reduced aerobic decomposition rates and water quality deteriorated. To study the dissimilarities in water use for different forest types, the water and energy balance of five forest stands in the Netherlands were observed during periods varying from two years to more than 15 years. In order to fully exploit the information contained in geophysical datasets for hydrological purposes, a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was introduced (CHI), in which a hydrologic model is part of the geophysical inversion. The research presented in this thesis aims to identify the processes and physiographic factors controlling the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of the exfiltration of saline groundwater to surface water, and hence the contribution of saline groundwater to surface water salinity. It demonstrates that the salinity of groundwater exfiltrating in polders in the Netherlands, and hence surface water salinity, varies on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Unfortunately, this thesis is not available online as it was printed in the early days of the computer age. Peat is formed in wet and acidic conditions, where net primary production exceeds the decomposition of organic matter. Geological Survey (USGS), and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), rather than restricting oneself to case studies in comparatively small homogeneous regions. Any application of only one of these methods can lead to a strongly biased and erroneous estimate of the range of aquifer responses. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water demand model were developed and eventually coupled to quantify and distinguish human and climate impacts on surface freshwater and groundwater resources. Over the past decade geophysical methods have gained an increased popularity due to their ability to map hydrologic properties. Desertification and landscape degradation is a worldwide problem, which is expected to grow in time due to unsustainable land use and climate change.