Essay on citizenship

Publicado em Agosto 2017

I would identify myself as a Caucasian, white young adult female. The civil society organizations discussed from this perspective are the local neighbourhoods, working environment, school communities or families; however, the list can also include women’s organizations, sports associations, as well as volunteer workers in community service (Etzioni, 1990, p. Moreover, with the tensions existing between the state and the civil society it becomes a matter of resolving the potential conflicts rather than establishing effective social citizenship (Oldfield, 1998, p. Marshall nevertheless believed in the dramatic changes for a civil society, which would eliminate inequalities by modifying the social rights. However, the communitarian theory faces the threat of underestimating the importance of material and economic dimensions to social problems, the institutions’ elite nature, which favors some groups against the others and the minority rights movements with their recent increase of success and popularity: The introduction of the two main traditions that derived citizenship as status and practice was informed by the concept of inclusiveness. Neo-liberalism advocates argued that capitalism was inhibited by the extensive social rights and that the last were damaging the entrepreneurial spirit in essay of drugs society. There are different views and perspectives on citizenship. Historically citizenship is being inevitably linked with the state formation. Moreover, according to neo-liberals, social rights promoted “dependency culture”, which was destroying work ethic and individual self-reliance (Kymlicka, 1994, essay on citizenship p. For the former, it pointed out the possibilities of universal establishment of citizenship as a part of a diverse, international concept that unites citizenship ties with the nation-state and creates the discourse of human rights (Kernohan, 1998, p. Civil society is seen as essential in improvement of day-to-day life, and civil society organizations are seen to replace the role and responsibilities of government authorities in ensuring the rights related to social citizenship. In other words, the equality of citizens becomes unacceptable in circumstances, where real inequalities essay on citizenship are being generated by capitalism between different social groups and social classes. In fact, the importance of belonging to community has been intensified by the welfare state. 44). The civil element in Marshal’s theory answered for “the rights necessary for individual freedom – liberty of the person, freedom of speech, essay on citizenship thought and faith, the right to own property and to conclude valid contract, and the right to justice” (Marshall, 1950, p. 19) essay on citizenship and generally reflected the concepts of passive citizenship. 32-66). Democratic values and beliefs are reflected in citizens’ actions. The president can protect the common good by acting as Chief Diplomat, Commander in Chief, and Economic Leader. 30). GE provides a wide variety of consumer products for the home; they have a vast selection of appliances, home improvement tools, housewares, home lighting and personal healthcare equipment. Com - custom writing company that provides custom written papers, such as essays, research papers, term papers, thesis papers, dissertations and other writing services inclusive of research material, for assistance purposes only. Social citizenship and the welfare state are not concerned with borders or accounting rules, instead they define the standard of citizenship. The concept originates from an essay that was given as a speech back in 1949 in honor of Alfred Marshall. (Boudreau & Ramstad 2007). All the sample papers we post on our blog may only serve as an example for our visitors and cannot be submitted as their own work, since this will result in plagiarism accusations. Here you may read various sample research papers and case studies, theses and dissertations, essays and reviews. His assumptions turned out to be right, when the post-WWII changes in the welfare state brought to many people social benefits, such as public health, security and public education (Koppelman, 1996, p. Citizenship is being defined as the relationship between the state and individuals. According to his opinion political participation is considered as “relations with political institutions” and is seen as social capital and its complementary act of “civic engagement”, which seems to be more suitable official description for acts accepted by members of communities(Etzioni, 1990, p. As a “political element” in his theory Marshall has also included “the right to participate in the exercise of political power, as a member of a body invested with political authority or as an elector of the members of such a “body” and a “social element”: rights which range from economic welfare to “the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in the society” (Marshall, 1950, p. The norms of citizenship, therefore, have improved with the development of state and citizenship became a multination concept, which implies different things to different nations (Dahrendorf, 1974, p. Although the expansion of suffrage was welcomed by Marx, he nevertheless believed that the only way to bring real equality was a revolutionary change. 11). 23) According to Marshall’s definition: “Citizenship requires a bond of a different kind, a direct sense of community membership based upon loyalty to a civilization which is common possession; it is the loyalty of free men endowed with rights and protected by a common law”(Marshall, 1950, p. For example, the company constantly trains its employees on new modes of production, using new technologies as well as educates them on ways of improving their work processes. Originally citizenship was denoting residence of people within protected walls of a city. The company conducts learning on areas such as providing information regarding competitors, providing market information such as market prices as The Martin vs. 14). These three activities provide a comprehensive solution to certain goals of the organization by the utilization of their current processes. So the possibilities given by citizenship can be a great power for self-realization in the society even for the minority groups that experience different types of discrimination, because the rights that guarantee them equality assume the wide range of social and public participation (Mouffe, 1992a, p. The first value and belief associated with democratic citizenship is justice. 37; Oldfield, 1998, p. However, if you like a certain paper and would like to order a similar one on your specific topic – do not hesitate to place an order on our website and have your paper completed from scratch by our professional PhD and Master's degree holding writers. Is generally considered an author of social citizenship concept. essay on citizenship The primary concern in his theory is how the concept of citizenship must be understood in the context of the relationships between the state and civil society, and what are those factors affecting such relationships. Civic republicans focus on family life, traditional moral values and traditional ways of caring. Communitarians highlight the transferring of private virtues and norms into the public decision-making sector of life, which again demonstrates a fundamental difference with civic republicanism (Galston, 1993, p. 49). 73). 24). For example, GE may develop a new performance management system which better communicates the overall organizational objectives. With the introduction of mass democracy and social protection as well as essay on citizenship introduction of welfare state a need in the new conception that would look on the relationship on an individual and the state appeared consequently. Social capital is related to the processes between people who establish networks, norms and social trust and contribute to the coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. Thus, contrary to evolutionary theory proposed by Marshall, these critics state that citizenship is not a subject to universal way of development, but instead it is contingent and historical (Mouffe, 1992a, p. Training permits employees to train in the direction of write my book report affecting the organization towards its objectives and visions. Such change in definition, for example, can be found in suffrage granted to women and the nonpropertied classes. Without even trying you could easily have a GE quality product in every room of your house. In a triangle of democracy-welfare-capitalism correlation it is hard to imagine the effective management of these conflictual rights. (French & Bell, 1999). Such concern was raised by Marx in his recognition of the fact that the state’s abstract equality contradicts the society’s concrete inequality. There were many reasons that have caused such changes: history proceeded with its migrations, wars and annexation and along on its way brought new meanings to citizenship. Marshall’s critics contend that rights are subject to contingency in relationships between state and civil society, which influence the nature of rights, and social changes in general. 61). The necessity to have an effective business has come to be completely recognized, this achievement research paper of drug addiction will typically be governed by the effectiveness and efficiency of training as well as development. H. The experience of World War Two has demonstrated that that the concept has to be changed and since then the “security” became of the main value for the new conception of citizenship. Paupers, convicts and soldiers are another example of how political and civil rights were once a privilege of certain classes only (Dahrendorf, 1974, p. In communitarianism it is “community” responsibility to establish and fulfil participation and practice of citizenship. 67). He argued that democracy and equality perhaps were subjects to political sphere, but they were far from being extended to the office and factory life (Etzioni, 1990, p. An expansive conception of citizenship from the perspective of women’s rights was similarly embraced by other writers (Rian, 1998, p. Today citizenship is more than just a detector of national identity; it also involves an increasing range of obligations and rights. Robert Putnam, the sociologist who popularised the concept of social capital, distinguishes between political participation and social capital. On our blog you will find a lot of useful tips and advice from professional academic writers, along with the specific examples of their writing. A lot goes into what a president does to make a country run, and especially the roles he has to fulfill. (Armstrong & Mitchell 2008). I am from Norwell, Massachusetts and lived there since I was in third grade. After losing his case, he challenged the decision of the lower courts and brought it upon the Massachusetts Supreme Court. There are some other controversial points in Marshall’s theory, which require additional questioning. Employees are trained to efficiently use new performance management system, therefore increasing organizational output especially for their large scale setting. The ideas of communitarianism have been widely used in recent discussions because of the importance of creating “social capital”. 78). 37). Organization training, development as well as learning enables the company to improve the quality of the work done thus improving sales as well as customer satisfaction. The arguments for group citizenship rights imply that citizenship is being associated with different things in different realms; while it can be referred as universal in the realms of political and civil rights, it becomes differential in the realm of social rights. These general principles provided the foundation for discussion of more concrete question of women’s claims to citizenship. In Europe, for example, the issues regarding possible “add-on” citizenship were raised with the declaration of a European Union and common citizenship of this union. (Mouffe, 1992a, p. Thus, it is no longer a question whether a demand for full citizenship should be claimed based on either women’s equality with or difference from men and encouraged by an ethic of either justice or care; which is premised on an ideal of either a independent or interdependent citizen (Koppelman, 1996, p. The relations, therefore, define participation of citizens with each other and with the communities to which they belong. (Kolberg, 1992, p. All three contexts nevertheless imply that the concept of “social citizenship” has played a significant role, provided that this citizenship represents the adaptation of redistributive policies initiated by an obligation on the part of the state. According to Michael Ignatieff (1995), the introduction of the welfare state can be explained as an attempt to make citizenship “a real as opposed to a purely formal experience” (Ignatieff, 1995, p. 5). My dad’s family essay on citizenship is from Portugal, essay on citizenship and my mother’s father’s side is from Sicily, Italy, and my mother’s moms side is from Ireland. 41). 13). Disclaimer: EssayLib. 22). More likely it is “trusting” and sharing communities that are able to provide citizenship by constant provision and guarantee of social rights for individuals (Etzioni, 1990, p. Meanwhile, social citizenship has emphasized the relationships dissertation consultation services illegal between citizens and the state and increased the level of obligation owned by the state towards its citizens. Yet, they represent different persectives: for communitarians citizens are seen as members of communities, rather than as individual public figures as they are viewed by supporters of civic republicanism. These can be shown in politics by treaties, war declarations, Bills, laws, and many other things. The third disadvantage of Marshall’s theory and particularly its adaptations is that they lack to provide valid explanations on how citizenship is being shaped by economic factors. The fuss of this case in 1805 rested on the question of citizenship, specifically female citizenship, and what acts included them. 43) According to Orloff such concept must be applied in systematic comparative analysis. This concept was later applied to the realization of citizenship worldwide. As an instrument or measure, the feminist perspective also offers a political potential to be realized. Later Hernes’s theory of “state-feminism” was embraced by Ann Shola Orloff, who argued that citizenship implies an obligation on the side of the state to provide women with capacity “to form and maintain autonomous households” (Orloff, 1993, p. This makes her free to defend the nonuniversalistic conceptions of citizenship without being vulnerable to accusations in double standards. Introducing learning on the management as well as sales team will enable such individuals to be informed and updated with the current market information that will aid in their selling. Communitarians oppose the liberal concepts of citizenship because of their basis in determining the autonomous individual as self-sufficient and the one who derives rights from this status. Communitarians focus on common values and norms, and on people’s “duties” as being citizens. The needy and the poor become especially vulnerable, since with the obligatory contracting of social security they have no means to protect themselves from ruling class’ onslaught (Kolberg, 1992, p. Later this term has acquired a different meaning and the standards and definitions of citizenship have changed. In times of economic crisis, for example, the cut of taxes and axe of public spending consequently reduce the social rights. In the first place Marshall’s theory lacks some valid explanation on why citizenship contracts and expands over time; that is, Marshall does not provide adequate description of the way rights decrease or increase in certain societies. ” Meanwhile, the feminist scholars have claimed that citizenship needs to be differentiated by social group and that preferential treatment to women should be granted by the state. Discussions on the subject of social capital raise the issues of citizen’s rights and duties, and thus move away from the topic of liberal and civic republican points of view. 11). 68). In this case the state no longer takes this role, or it’s not seen as citizen action undertaken in the political and public spheres generally. This was accomplished through the governments’ commitment to develop and maintain a minimum standard of living socially accepted for all members within community. Having a fair and reasonable justice system helps keep our citizens in order and safe from harm. 43) From this perspective, community acquires the meaning of not only solidarity, belonging, and rights, but also of loyalty and reciprocity. The communitarian view, for example, distinguishes the “loyalty” and “sense of community” as words associated with obligations and rights in the democratic state. These arguments and events will raise broader concept of the nature of government’s obligations to groups and individuals and the capacity of governments to respond to new group claims by shaping the inclusive policies. These papers should be used with proper reference. (Armstrong & Mitchell, 2008). Among such factors would be gender, class, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, social movements, etc. 19-22) The raising do my fractions homework interest in citizenship and its implications in society is caused by emerging political events, academic debates and policy innovation. 12). 58). I was born in Providence, Rhode Island on July 7th, 1996. Thus, whoever belonged to a community residing inside the boundaries was considered a citizen. Businesses have a necessity to participate further in preparation new training platforms in order for the business to move smoothly. GE’s management first identifies goals to be achieved, and then proposes the use of training, development as well as learning to achieve those goals. Communitarianism and civic republicanism concentrate on the politics of the “common good”. GE recognizes that developmental activities such as learning has a clear and distinct relationship with learning, innovation as well as creativity, embeds learning within the organizations culture, enhances skills woodlands homework as well as expertise within the organization, acts as a catalyst for change, acts as a competitive tool towards competitors and improves on organizational output. Massachusetts case began in 1801 when the son of William and Anna Martin, James Martin, sued Massachusetts for his mother’s confiscated land. Sales staffs are also trained on handling customer complaints as a way of improving customer relations. For example things that are illegal are made illegal to protect GE is a very impressive and versatile company that is trying to be your go to brand of choice when choosing your luxuries of your next home. According to Marx, the class divisions within a civil society are being reflected by the state, which serves as an instrument for the ruling class. (Sherpherd 1999). Training of sales staff enables the company to have a good relationships with their customers, it also enable them to use tactics learned from training to sell the Companies products. 43). Creating essay on citizenship laws for what’s right and wrong keeps society balanced and in order. Civic solidarity had to be built on the principles of “presumption that the more a citizen received from the state the more easily he would connect his private interest to the public” (Ignatieff, 1995, p. There are fundamental values and beliefs associated with democratic citizenship. Clinton administration in the United States has launched social policy innovation, which is based on the assertion that health care coverage represents a “right of citizenship. The concept of distinguished universalism was applied to a number of basic debates in feminist theory in attempts to move beyond the binary divides which so often involve us into either gender-neutral or gender-differentiated models of citizenship, neither of which can be satisfactory by its own. Out of the 7 roles, there are many ways that the president can protect the common good. However, the conflict of interests is found when we apply the concept of equality implied by citizenship to the capitalist society, where the prevalent is the research paper principle of inequality. According to Chantal Mouffe, for example, both “the specificity of womanhood and the common humanity of men and women” can be recognized by citizenship. However, the new wave of 1970’s neo-liberalism promised the backwards move of the welfare state social frontiers. 47) From Marshall’s point of view the fullest realization of citizenship was primarily dependent on a liberal-democratic welfare state that guaranteed essential civil (freedom of speech, freedom to worship, free to own property and equality of justice for all), political (right to vote), and social (housing, education, social protection from poverty) rights to all members of the state (Marshall, 1950, pp. Marshall T. Feminist perspective on social citizenship was adapted by Helga Hernes, sociologies from Norway (Pateman, 1988, p. (Galston, 1993, p. The communitarian approach to citizenship argues that citizens are not dispersed individuals, but each of them is the unit of a community, in which their status and participation are formed through their constant dependence on other members of community. These programs help the employees focus on managing change within the work environment.