Do kids benefit from homework

Publicado em Agosto 2017

However, in classes of mixed ability, the lower-performing students spend more time on homework than their higher-performing peers, which may account for the difficulty in finding clear relationships between time spent on homework and student achievement. After that, they need to be kids and teens. If kids are not allowed to make discoveries on their own… to learn through play… they are not learning how to be productive members of society. As this review will show, the research suggests that homework may benefit some students under certain conditions. In one older study, schools in which more homework was routinely assigned had higher levels of student achievement compared to schools where regular homework was not expected (Rutter, Maughan, Mortimore, and Ouston 1979). Classwork is classwork and homework is homework. ” Angela Downing, an elementary school teacher in Newton, Massachusetts, has found great success in displaying excellent student homework on the walls inside and outside of her classroom. Most kids in America go to school, pre-k to twelfth grade. ” Still, homework is so ingrained in the fabric of schooling that studies revealing its minimal positive benefits have been largely shrugged off or ignored altogether. And more . Further, if students have time for AP classes, the school isn’t doing its job. Other studies find a positive relationship in math, but not in reading (Fuchs et al. School board members have long struggled with this question as they strive to implement policies that will support student learning. Although not explicitly linked to achievement, it is logical to assume that these factors lead to improved achievement. In a more rigorous statistical test of school homework policies and student math achievement, Philips (1997) found that students at schools where above-average amounts of homework were assigned (compared to the total sample of schools) had higher math achievement than did students at schools where students did less homework. ” So, you could have written: “There is no need for homework that affects us with its many negative effects. Eliminating homework sounds grand. Cooper's (2001) review of studies that included teacher feedback measures found no significant impact on student achievement from the type of feedback provided by teachers. I disagree with eliminating homework altogether. The evidence speaks for itself. Similarly, in an examination of parent and student perceptions, Coutts (2004) found that homework may take away leisure time and may not be as varied or useful as work done in class. “My students have not covered as much material as students in the past have because of these factors. So, fewer hours worrying about homework means less time is spent feeling negative. Results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time enrichment, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance (James-Burdumy, Dynarski, Moore, Deke, Mansfield, Pistorino, and Warner 2005). The problem with this focus is the lack of consistent results. Clearly, our schools are not expecting enough of their students, and all that homework is pointless. If a high school is giving its students all the subjects they need, there wouldn’t be time for AP classes. Interestingly, the amount of homework assigned by teachers was typically unrelated to student achievement; yet, as in his earlier findings, student reports of the amount of homework completed were positively associated with student achievement. By doing so, homework becomes disassociated from the standard teacher-student relationship and gains a whole new level of importance that draws students into the assignment. These and similar benefits, such as good study habits and independent learning, have been found by other researchers as well (Johnson and Pontius 1989; Warton 2001). In this nationally representative study, the researchers concluded that, relative to other ethnic groups, homework had a stronger impact on Asian American students than on those of other ethnicities. By now, you’re writing should be more polished than it is, and you should care about whether its appearance reflects well upon you. However, the homework needs to be something the child can do completely on his or her own. So why would the children want to jump off a building to commit suicide? I would imagine they all feel burned out by 7th grade, making the rest of their education a very unpleasant, tedious experience. De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers (2000) accounted for the relationship of many factors to one another in examining homework and math education. Anywhere between 65%-75% of each school’s student body qualify for free or reduced lunch programs, so it was decided that students should not be singled out for failing to adequately complete take-home assignments. This study employed structural equation modeling, a statistical technique for building and testing models of interacting among factors and outcomes. In a longitudinal study conducted by Keith, Diamond-Hallam, and Fine (2004), researchers used structural equation models to examine the effects of in-school versus out-of-school homework on high school students. Still, other districts across the country are taking second looks at the practice. Parents worry that their children have too little homework or too much—and teachers get criticized for both. The principal of Gaithersburg Elementary in Maryland decided to ask students to spend only 30 minutes in the evening reading. Specific types of homework can be very beneficial to students with learning disabilities, however. Across the country, parents, teachers, and students are also voicing their opinions in the homework debate. I think no homework in grade school. However, Cooper and colleagues (2006) caution against viewing the grade-level effect as fact. Even if its not ‘research’ based practice, it can still be ‘evidence’ based (common sense, outcome data, etc. Can a kid finish an essay at home, for example, when three class periods were already dedicated to it, and do kids benefit from homework he is still not done? While many researchers take either a positive or essay on geography a negative stance on homework, Cooper (2001) takes a more balanced approach, stating, "Research on the effects of homework suggests that it is beneficial as long as teachers use their knowledge of developmental levels to guide policies and expectations" (34). Bryan, Nelson, and Mathru (1995) claim that homework overexposes children to academic duties, decreasing their interest and increasing their physical and emotional fatigue; researchers call this the satiation effect. Leone and Richards (1989) examined the association between how much time students spend on homework and what grades they receive. " Some researchers argue that the relationship between time spent on homework and academic achievement is weaker for students in elementary grades than for older students (Cooper and Valentine 2001; Cooper 1989a). Sometimes people need a break from all that work . Zhou Qiliang said, there were four students (including Huang Wanting’s younger brother) who didn’t go to school yesterday, and the relevant teachers also contacted these children’s parents that morning. Adding to this hypothesis, Cooper, Lindsay, and Nye (2000) found that students whose parents were more involved in their homework had lower test scores and class grades. Students in Japan and Finland, for example, are assigned less homework but still outperform U. ” No homework? The solutions are on the podium to check and I expect them to check. Cooper (1989a) noted a trend in these results: Essentially, as students age, the positive effect of homework on achievement becomes more pronounced. In the early 1960s, parents became concerned that children were not being assigned enough homework in the belief that homework was essential for academic excellence (Gill and Schlossman 2004). A superior K-6 education sans homework. I completely disagree with the idea of homework, for the simple reason of it ruining my personal interest in learning and its affects on mental health. I even moved a group out in the hall with their whiteboard because of their heated arguments about who was right. Although, like many researchers, he concluded that homework—compared to no homework—had a statistically positive impact on student achievement, Foyle did not find a significant difference in achievement between practice and preparation homework. If we start paying attention to distinctions among various types of homework, I think we will have an easier time seeing what kinds of assignments are worthwhile (or not). Does that mean we do away with homework up to a certain point? The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has brought a surge of federal and state funding for out-of-school-time programs that provide academic assistance, such as homework help, for low-performing students. In Chen and Stevenson's (1989) cross-cultural examination of homework in grades one, three, and five, the researchers argue that homework can have a negative impact on students' attitudes toward school. There is no proof that homework at the grade school age adds to academic achievement. An experimental study conducted by Murphy and Decker (1989) revealed that the majority of teachers (approximately three-quarters of them) check and grade homework. S. Because of homework. And I’ve seen no change in the achievement level of my students since I stopped assigning homework. “They work hard in class all day. Researchers have also focused their attention on the effects of homework among various ethnic or socioeconomic groups. What about reading? Thus, higher income students who are high achieving gain the most from homework when compared to other high-income or high-achieving students, which begs the question of how much lower-income students—and especially low-achieving lower-income students—can benefit from homework. Still doing homework, it’s become excessive and, as such, is probably not beneficial. And many, if not most, teachers are unconvinced that gutting homework from their repertoire of learning tools is the best idea anyway. These findings suggest that the low correlation between homework and achievement at the elementary level may be due to the intended purpose and type of the homework and the reaction of specific students, rather than the homework itself. Some research also suggests that homework has nonacademic benefits, such as helping children establish routines, develop study skills, and take responsibility. It will also relieve the parents of having to have any involvement at all with their kids’ education. It works for every subject, because even math has many topics worthy of research and about which you can learn more. The researchers hypothesized that other factors, such as parent support at home, may help strengthen homework's effect on students of various ethnic and racial backgrounds. What if your school is giving you the impression that you’re a better student and smarter than you actually are? Researchers also have examined possible nonacademic benefits from homework. 2006; Trautwein and Koller 2003). For most educators, completely cutting homework out of schools isn’t a viable alternative – at least not yet. High-achieving students who have extra resources from home, they say, benefit from homework because they have more opportunities to complete it and often get help with assignments. BTW, just so you know…it’s “fewer” in number and “less” in quantity, as in fewer cars means less traffic. Because approximately eighty-seven percent of the first eighteen years of a child's life is spent outside of school, parents have the opportunity to exert a great degree of influence over their child's time (Walberg, Paschal, and Weinstein 1985). I don’t create busy work, but I focus on areas I think are important, using “I can” statements so he understands expectations for mastery. In addition, Hoover-Demspey and colleagues (2001) say younger children have less-effective study habits because of their inability to focus and avoid distraction. Other studies have found just the opposite, however (Keith 1982; Leone and Richards 1989). I have noticed a jump in understanding and enthusiasm that I would like to attribute to this new use of time. And, for the record, homework in K-6 that’s forcing little kids to drag around those heavy backpacks is absolutely criminal. Does all classroom reading now have to be done aloud to keep all at the same pace? I find that he is capable of more, and I’m not positive the rigor is there. If your child is in secondary school, you could start by talking with his home-room (or home-group, pastoral or form) teacher or subject teacher. If a student learns to dislike something (say English), how effective is an educator’s instruction going to be when the student is disengaged or demoralized? According to the myopia rates and other physical conditions, they can award the schools which have done well in such aspects. ) The researcher found that these assignments promoted higher levels of parent involvement than did noninteractive assignments. It is important to remember, however, that path analysis does not assume causality—it simply proposes a model of causality. This was especially true among elementary school students. Two hours is all we have before bed time and we have to fit in dinner, bath and other bed time routines. In April, Denise Pope, a researcher at Stanford University, found that too much homework can negatively affect kids by increasing stress and sleep deprivation and generally leaving less time for family, friends, and activities. Although homework cannot serve as an easy answer to raising student achievement, the literature suggests that it can have a direct effect on student learning under certain conditions and an indirect effect under other conditions. Alfie Kohn, a critic of homework, recently wrote, "There was no consistent linear or curvilinear relation between the amount of time spent on homework and the child's level of academic achievement" (2006, 15). We are not using homework to evaluate research paper for diabetes a student’s mastery of what was taught, we should be using homework to evaluate student progress in learning and understanding what was taught so we can adapt our instruction accordingly. Or at least they can create in society an atmosphere in which schools are required to put emphasis on students’ physical fitness. For example, Dufresne and Kobasigawa (1989) examined home study time among students in grades one, three, five, and seven and the students' responses to test items asking them to pair words associated with each other. Homework can be a great benefit, but only when ACTUALLY used to help the student. I get three to five hours of sleep every night, am extremely stressed every day, and no longer get to partake in family movie night. Some even blamed homework for the child mortality rate (Gill and Schlossman 1996); one writer of the period referred to homework as a "legalized criminality" (Nash 1930, 7). The three of them stayed home and worked on their homework an entire day but still was unable to finish it. 14. Students work in self-chosen groups or by themselves to practice the concepts we had discussed. Today, however, increased demands for accountability are being put on public education. Kralovec and Buell (2003) attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. Unlike the studies included in his 2001 meta-analysis, a later study conducted by Cooper and colleagues differentiated between the amount of homework assigned by the teacher and the amount that students completed (Cooper et al. Thus, in your sentence, since “negative” is an adjective which describes a noun, the correct term is “effects. He had math homework every day, and social studies review material to study before a test. If you feel your primary school child is getting too much homework you might like to talk to your child’s teacher. However, as Cooper points out, few studies separate the two factors, which are often used interchangeably when discussing amount of assigned homework. 0 is being graded too easily. The conflicting nature of the research findings noted in this review reflects the continuing debate surrounding the value of homework. Older students appear to benefit more than younger students, for example. In the afternoon, the school received a call from the Saiyang Police Station saying 3 schoolgirls were hospitalized after jumping off a residential house. The study did suggest that family involvement might have behavioral benefits, however, such as increased companionship between parents and children and increased awareness on the part of parents of their children's academic life. Zhou Qiliang said that he asked the teachers of those students and learned that the homework assigned this time is not actually considered much, just 3 hours of homework for several days of vacation. For example, they can offer students physical examination after students graduate. Of the studies that do exist, researchers have focused on the two most frequently reported purposes of homework: Practice and preparation. What a crime, the despicable education system is making our younger generation suffer severely!!!! As a math teacher, I appreciate the concept of practicing skills. Despite this extra difficulty younger children may face, Bempechat suggests that homework still provides a way to help them become better learners. ” The “it” refers to your writing, so I’m saying “the appearance of your writing” or “your writing’s appearance. All I ever do is homework, and I get good grades but I don’t have time to do any after-school activities. Although little research has been conducted on the impact of homework completed during in-school versus out-of-school hours, it is worth noting such a distinction. Instead of betting though, why not research it and give us the verdict? It would make for a very interesting NEA article. However, it is not known if this disparity would be any more of a disadvantage in homework than in regular classwork. More homework doesn’t always mean higher achievement levels, especially in primary school. Researchers then examined the relationships between those created constructs using path analysis. Can the educational departments include physical fitness as a criterion when they assess the the qualification of schools? 2004). You are right about the assignment of homework being excessive these days. We don’t all live in boarding schools some of us will get jobs and then how do we finish all of that extra homework!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I”m a kid and i”m not just saying we should have homework because i dont wont it i have why we should not have homework . Some researchers have found that homework has a positive effect on parents and families by allowing them to show an interest in their children's academic progress (Hoover-Dempsey et al. This research indicates that a variety of factors influence homework's effect on students, including the subject matter, the amount of homework, and the nature of the assignment; classroom factors such as provision of materials and follow-up discussion in class; and home or community factors such as parent involvement (Cooper 1989a). Researchers often attribute such a discrepancy to the fact that younger students typically have shorter attention spans than older students. I do know dissertation consultation services the students get at the beginning of each semester are not ready. I am there to help if help is needed. Perspectives vary, however. And Cooper, Robinson, and Patall (2006) note that educators claim "a long list of both positive and negative consequences of homework" (6), suggesting a need for continued examination of the subject. Cooper and Nye (1994) conducted an extensive examination of the literature on homework and students with learning disabilities. What a great idea – let’s have our students fall even farther do kids benefit from homework behind the students in other countries who have already passed ours by in their academic achievements. They caution, however, that such a finding pertains primarily to teachers who give significantly small amounts of homework but do not define "small amount. In addition, Cooper's (1989b) meta-analysis of preparation and practice research revealed no conclusive results regarding comparisons of the two. Overall, a review of mainly correlational studies examining the amount phd thesis computer of homework and its relation to achievement revealed encouraging findings. If students can’t reinforce what they learn at home, they will have to do the practice at school and lose learning time for new concepts. My son’s school doesn’t provide homework, just 30 minutes of reading a day. This relationship held true across elementary, middle, and high school grade levels. In addition, students in schools that are identified as low performing and that have high percentages of students in poverty do less homework than students in more high-performing and high-SES schools (Easton and Bennett 1989). No teacher could assign more than 10 minutes of homework per subject. Tammy Linder dj premier production resume says that teachers haven’t had the amount of teaching time they usually need to enforce classroom lessons and concepts. … And homework just itself, little or vast, is just an outrageous idea. Homework is not a punishment for students who were not focused in class. Unfortunately, findings from this study are unknown. THANKS SO MUCH . From there, you can brainstorm some solutions together, weighing up the pros and cons of the different options to find the best one. Well, that would be an issue. Other studies provide similar results. With the onset of the Vietnam War, attention was diverted from the academic excellence movement, and public opinion swung once again away from support for homework. During the past decade, according to Gill and Schlossman (1996), "leading educational spokespersons have celebrated homework as essential to raise educational standards, foster high academic achievement, upgrade the quality of the labor force, and link family and school in a common teaching mission" (27). For instance, monitoring such homework habits as notebook organization was found to be a potentially effective method for "improving the completion rates and accuracy of homework assignments for students with learning disabilities" (Cooper and Nye 1994, 477). Hagan (1927) was the first American researcher to examine homework's effects on academic achievement compared to the effects of supervised study in school. Kralovec and Buell (2001) proposed that the public's belief in the effectiveness of homework is based on three homework myths: What researchers say: Information from international assessments shows little relationship between the amount of homework students do and test scores. Do they get to finish at home, or do we just have everyone wait for them? Students can learn time management some other time, right? Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the majority of adults supported and endorsed homework for its character-building and academic benefits. They are learning to be somebodies drone. That said, toughen up and take an honest look at yourself, and for goodness sake, challenge the status quo once in awhile! “As a result of their experience, I vowed never to assign more than 30 minutes of outside reading enrichment for my students,” Stone recalls. Little research exists on the impact of homework completed by a student working with one or more other people. Corno and Xu (2004) call homework the job of childhood. Heavy homework loads should not be used as a main strategy for improving home-school relations or student achievement. Structural equation modeling provides a more rigorous method of examining relationships between variables than path analysis alone (Garson 2006). A couple of do kids benefit from homework research studies, however, have examined the role of homework policy. (Such a study tests causal hypotheses without random assignment. And no final bell – let the students go home when they feel they’ve learned enough each day. According to the School Library Journal (2005), students are receiving higher grades with less outside preparation, while the Washington Post (2006) reports that the increase in the amount of student homework has increased arguments against it. Homework is guided practice designed carefully by well educated teacher. Make them prove it’s benefitting you in ways no other teaching methodology could. In fact, according to two decades' worth of data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), "… the majority of all students at all grade levels averaged less than 1 hour of homework nightly" (Gill and Schlossman 2004, 180). But over time, educational departments attach importance only to the academic performance of students, not to the physical fitness and mental health of them, leading to some schools and teachers overloading students with homework, and some even using this as a means of punishing students, having students bent over their desks day and night to do repetitive pieces of homework that aren’t actually necessary. It’s not an isolated incident at all, Mr. The literature on types of homework is generally restricted to descriptions of the purpose of each type and how often homework of that type is assigned in the classroom. This potential for impact has lent itself to numerous studies on the impact of parent involvement on homework, but research still provides highly mixed reviews of just how much impact can be attributed to parent involvement. Whatever amount of homework is appropriate for younger students, I’m not sure. Schools have never before been confronted with requirements for academic performance as stringent as those enacted in NCLB. College students simply must be able to do this; there isn’t enough time for my students read two books of the Aeneid and then discuss it inside of an hour and a half class session. Although the literature on the relationship between homework completed out of school and academic achievement is sparse, Cosden and colleagues (2001) examined ten studies that evaluated after-school programs offering academic activities and homework assistance. In regards to that, I think that complete elimination of homework would be a disservice to the students. Making those kids drag around those heavy backpacks in K-6 is criminal and totally unnecessary, as was proven prior to 1966. Other researchers claim that homework helps students develop responsibility and life skills and the ability to manage tasks and that it provides experiential learning, increased motivation, opportunities to learn to cope with difficulties and distractions, and academic benefits (Corno and Xu 2004; Coutts 2004; Xu and Corno 1998). What do you think of being assigned one or two research papers to write for which you’re given several months to complete and which involve a process of submitting drafts for review, so the teacher can provide guidance and correction? BTW, elementary school should not end with 5th grade. I don’t know. Isn’t an 8 hour school day enough? So, homework is just extended school. In fact, studies that have included longitudinal data or other checks and balances in the research design have found that homework has a negative effect on achievement (Cooper et al. Most studies that measure the impact of homework on achievement focus on homework completed without help from write essay for me others. Today, however, there is disagreement not only about the value of homework but also about whether students are assigned too much of it or too little. Only two of the studies reported improved academic achievement; however, several noted improvements in behavioral skills, such as increased academic motivation and improved work habits, which may indirectly impact achievement. His school had restrictions to homework. The homework debate has often focused on how and why homework affects students' learning and achievement scores. 10-year-old Huang Wanting told the reporter that she is in the fifth grade of Saiyang Center Primary School. Please get that one straight. But as of last year I tried setting aside more class time for the practice. Yet, multiple studies highlight the impact of parent involvement on homework. However, other researchers offer contrasting views and contend that the impact of homework time on achievement is greater at the earlier (fourth and fifth) grade levels, compared to the later (sixth to tenth) grade levels (De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers 2000). Lastly, I just wanted to share an observation I had a few years ago while living in Indiana near my nephew, who moved there in the middle of his sixth grade year. Hey, why not do away with grades? That way, you can easily talk to each other about your child’s schoolwork and homework. Assigning homework for the sake of routine procedures, gradebook entries, or punishment is unfair to our kids and their families, and is a disservice on many levels to all involved in the long run. What did this result in? When students who don’t work are up until 11 p.  Nightly practice of any concept keeps the brain engaged in the topic and helps the student focus. In the passage above, “i-t-s” appears only once, in the second sentence that begins with “By now” and goes on to say “you should care about whether its appearance reflects well upon you. My kids’ school starts at 8am. If a student does not understand the concepts being taught, do kids benefit from homework comes to a teacher, still does not understand it, has homework over it.. And after homework in handed in, teachers won’t check it by themselves; instead, some teachers ask students to do it for them. Through their multi-level analysis, the researchers found that the amount of homework was the only factor related to achievement—and that it accounted for only 2. Always praise and reward your child for trying and for doing her best, especially on tasks she has found hard. The students also learned to work on schoolwork when they did not want to and to adjust their attentiveness to the demands of a specific assignment. Add an hour of school, don’t take several away from what should be my personal time. According to Pope, homework should not be simply assigned as a routine practice. She found more time spent doing homework, more help from parents, and more requests for parent involvement from teachers were do kids benefit from homework associated with lower achievement in reading and mathematics. Another study showed some indications that the optimal amount of homework for high school students was 1½ to 2½ hours per night, and less for younger students (Cooper, Robinson, and Patall 2006). For instance, of the eight studies included in Cooper's (1989b) meta-analysis of preparation and practice homework, only two studies examined the effects of both types. Homework is not the grade, homework is the practice to allow the learning that will be graded. Trautwein and Koller (2003) also say that lack of longitudinal data and the fact that some of the studies are conducted by teachers themselves, rather than impartial researchers, may lead to overstating the effects of homework. She also noted that interactive assignments—those that require interacting with other students or with parents—and parent involvement were important factors in ensuring homework's effectiveness. However, numerous shortcomings still exist in the seventeen studies Cooper examined. Try to minimise distractions by turning off the TV and asking siblings to stay away. Where? Finally, she found that students who were assigned interactive homework received better science grades than students who were assigned other types of homework. Based on my own experience as a student, when an A was 95-100 and a B was 90-94, anyone who has over a 4. He rarely had any other homework outside of those two classes. S. As reported in one study, students in predominantly minority schools do less homework than those in predominantly white schools. Have you, your classmates and all the parents considered protesting this little bit of insanity? U. A vast majority of students hate taking homework home. Your point is well-taken, but, if a teacher doesn’t use homework to determine the progress of the students, too often it is likely to be busy work that serves no useful purpose. The findings may be attributed to various circumstances, they say. Sixth grade belongs in elementary school just as much as 9th grade belongs in junior high, so that HS is grades 10-12. The researchers found that older students (the fifth- and seventh-graders) spent more time studying harder items and performed better than the younger students. For older children, you could also ask your child to leave his mobile phone with you. I feel that homework should be considered as a means of formative assessment. Assigning the writing of one essay that they spend the year researching and writing, submitting drafts to the teacher for review and correction, would do more to prepare them for college than a host of other assignments. What about students who are slower or faster? If a student had never had homework in their life, how well prepared do you think they are going to be for college, where the student is completely accountable for spending necessary after school hours working on recently taught concepts? My sixth graders does up to 30 minutes of math, 15 minutes of LA, and 10 minutes of typing practice several days a week. So, the first thing every parent, grandparent, student and citizen in every community should be doing is protesting homework in K-6 until it’s eliminated. Thats seven hours per day, 5 days per week for hmm, i dont know, around 40-ish weeks for 15 years minimum–the choice for going to college is theirs or their parents. Regardless of the reason, school leaders and educators need definitive, research-based guidance on the role homework should play in their school systems. Remember how happy our own childhood was, when we could finish our homework within half an hour after school and then go enjoy ourselves as much as we could… I don’t know what’s wrong with this society these days… We can ignore the depravity of adults, but how can we compromise our next generation? However, as an instructor at a community college, my concern and disappointment stems from students largely not being able to study effectively outside of our face-to-face time. With the heavy focus on standardized testing already in schools, losing precious out-of-school homework time drastically diminishes how long teachers can devote to thoroughly covering a given subject, as well as the depth and amount of topics they can cover in a school year. This may be because "younger children are less able than older children to ignore irrelevant information or stimulation in their environment" (Muhlenbruck, Cooper, Nye, and Lindsay 2000, 298). Given the shortcomings of correlational studies, Cooper (1989a) and Cooper and colleagues (2006) suggest an emphasis on experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Almost everyone hands in their assignment and almost everyone does well on it (including showing their work), even though it does not count for very much of their grade. Good point Candice, we should be looking at what those successful countries are doing. From the end of the nineteenth century through the 1940s, the child health and progressive education movements led to an attack on homework for elementary school and junior high school students. Supposed disadvantages include loss of interest in school due to burnout, lack of leisure time, interference by parents, cheating, and disparity between performance levels of students. My husband and I both get off work at 6pm and we all get home around 7pm. It was at this time that the slightly older Kong Huan raised the idea of ending their life by jumping off a building. Those who received their K-6 education prior to around 1966 received a superior education, sans homework (like not a single homework assignment ever), than anyone has received since. Homework could be used as the pre learning for tomorrow or the relearning of today or the time to learn from another point of view. Such sad children, such sad childhoods, such a sad education system of ours. When I was a junior and senior, school ended at 3:30, we had only one 50-minute study hall, and there’s no way any of us would have had time for AP classes. Accounting for variables in students' backgrounds, their teachers, and the involvement of their families, Van Voorhis found that students who completed more science homework earned higher science grades on their report cards. A quasi-experimental study by Van Voorhis (2003) looked at science homework involving interaction between parent and student to measure its impact on family involvement and academic achievement. Over the past 150 years, the public's support for homework has waxed and waned on do kids benefit from homework a fairly regular cycle. Van Voorhis (2003) examined the association between homework and science achievement in middle school grades. “My general suggestion is to change the default: No homework should be the norm,” Kohn says, “Six hours of academics is enough—except on those occasions when teachers can show strong reason to infringe on family time and make these particular students do more of this particular schoolwork. 1998). Working with the teacher Try to set up a friendly working relationship with your child’s teacher. Schools give a lot of work in class. I hope the whole society can focus on this issue; don’t just talk about caring for the next generation, but focus on the many aspects of children’s growth. Does homework help or hinder student learning—and which students, under what conditions, does it help or hinder? Cooper's (2001) meta-analysis of seventeen studies measuring such a relationship noted fifty correlations among the studies; "of the 50 correlations, 43 indicated that students who reported spending more time on homework also scored higher on a measure of achievement or attitude" (26). 4 percent of the difference in achievement between students who did homework and those who did not. Some have argued that homework can increase the achievement gap between students from affluent and poor families. And, inside of school, teachers spent less time using corrective measures when he wasn’t able to finish an assignment. Nobody and nothing will ever be perfect, hence there is always room for improvement! To me homework is a test because all you do is learn it at school then its like the teachers wont to know you get and don’t get right . There should be some homework, but it needs to be more selective in both assignment type and the amount of time allowed for completion. We have frequent short quizzes (2 or 3 a week) that are worth more to check for individual understanding and unit assessments that are worth a lot (with a cumulative page every time) to check for longer-term learning. ” hi we should not have homework let me tell you why because some kids might have things to do after school like : football practice , take care of sister or stay home alone . Joe. Nightly doesn’t work. Another study examined the influence of homework, among other variables, on student grades across five ethnic groups: white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, and Native American students (Keith and Benson 1992). Age, then, is but one of the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing the association between homework and student learning. I am a high school a-b honor roll kid and homework can still be going at 11:00. I feel that homework should be assigned on an “as necessary” basis, to serve as practice time for things previously taught and learned in class that students need to practice independently. This meaningful homework should be appropriately challenging, time-considerate, and clearly relevant to class concepts. Supposed benefits include immediate achievement and learning, long-term academic benefits, nonacademic benefits, and benefits to parents and families. Low-achieving students from poor families, on the other hand, suffer due to home circumstances caused by economic deprivation. There is no more ‘gotcha’ in the classroom; we are all working to learn as much as we can, as well as we can. Those who received their K-6 education prior to around 1966, received an education far superior to the education anyone has received since, and it was provided without a single homework assignment, like zero, nada, zilch. I agree that homework should not be used to determine a student’s overall course grade. "The differences suggest that not only do Asians report completing more homework, on average, but that each hour of homework they do complete has a greater effect on their learning than for other ethnic groups" (91). Additionally, some research suggests that the positive relationship with student achievement weakens when middle school students spend more than one hour on homework per day (Cooper et al. My colleagues and I see too many students unable to absorb or even complete the required readings. Trautwein and Koller (2003) highlight several limitations of the research literature. Although their review did not conclude overall effectiveness of homework for these students, it did conclude that other variables influence the link between achievement and homework. Don’t let children feel that dying is better than having to do endless pieces of homework assigned by teachers. Perhaps we did not cover every single page of the book, but we got the important parts and they understood it. Seriously. Let’s make school just a fun time for kids. In addition, students who were assigned interactive homework also returned more homework assignments than students who were assigned noninteractive homework. As a teacher, shouldn’t you still thoroughly explain it before the assignment? Overall, these researchers noted, "After-school programs can serve a protective function for children, particularly for those who do not have access to other structured after-school activities or homework assistance at home" (Cosden et al. The assignment is used to make sure we understand and can use the ideas and skills. That’s an important argument in favor of selectively assigning homework in 7-12 that has a significant purpose which the teacher can guide them through. Epstein attributes the results to the possibility that parents may spend more time helping their children if they are poor-performing rather than high-performing students. However, he concluded that, "with regard to achievement, all eight studies found that homework involving preparation for new material or practice of old material led to higher scores on tests than homework that dealt solely with the content of the present day's lesson" (122). Was losing the Cold War because Russian children were smarter" (Gill and Schlossman 2004, 177). If we ever want to get back on top of our game, we must open ourselves up to change and experimentation and be willing to laugh at ourselves and not take things so personally all the time! How does a HS student manage to get on the Honor Roll when that student doesn’t know how to use an apostrophe when writing contractions, doesn’t know that 8-hour is a compound adjective that must be hyphenated, and doesn’t know that every sentence begins with a capital letter? These findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students. “There are simply no compelling data to justify the practice of making kids work what amounts to a second shift when they get home from a full day of school,” says Alfie Kohn, an expert on child education, parenting, and human behavior, as well as the author of The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing. When your child does have homework troubles, try talking with her about what she could do better next time. By contrast, in a study conducted by De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers (2000), the researchers contend that "teachers giving less homework are less effective" (152). I feel better about giving differentiated assignments (some beg for the harder assignments! Homework altogether is a waste of time, paper, money. Yesterday, she failed to finish her assigned homework and along with sixth-graders Wang Huan and Kong Huan, all did not go to school. The blanket term “homework” does not begin to encompass the variety of work, good and bad, assigned by teachers for students to do outside of class. This is not just unfair to the children who don’t have parental or other one-on-one guidance, it is also cutting into the children’s sleep hours in families where both parents work, like mine. Homework should be graded and reviewed aloud with the class for the purpose of teacher and student feedback, but a student’s course grade should not be directly penalized for failure to complete homework, or incorrect answers on homework assignments. According to Keith's proposed path analysis, homework has a causal effect on high school achievement. While we’re at it, let’s allow our students to be on their cell phones all day at school, too. Several other studies examining teacher feedback have focused on its effects on student achievement. Following the 1957 launch of Sputnik, "the homework problem was reconceived as part of a national crisis: The U. It doesn’t matter if she hasn’t finished things perfectly. For most of the year, what free time we did have was spent practicing our tumbling for the annual circus every spring. You can also help your child identify people or resources that could help her further. 2001). Until the mid-1970s, homework was viewed as an example of the excessive pressure on students to achieve (Cooper et al. He also found that intellectual ability followed by study time showed the strongest direct effects on student achievement. Kids hate school now, know why? This may be an isolated incident, but the change in instruction was a great benefit to him. M. One direct consequence is that students are not physically fit, which is characterized by the increasing number of short-sighted students. ) because I know that they are working with others and that I am available. The 1950s saw a decline in the progressive education movement, coupled with a renewed interest in homework. The 1983 release of the National Commission on Excellence in Education's report, A Nation at Risk, brought about a new educational excellence movement and a new view of homework. Much research has been conducted to try to understand the ways in which various types of homework and various situations influence different groups of students. It is less clear whether homework can facilitate parents' involvement in children's schoolwork, however. 🙂 Seriously, why, in the wake of this RTI educational framework are we not modeling those systems that have got it right? The new backlash against homework could be viewed as part of the natural cycle, or as a fresh perspective on how these strict accountability requirements affect students. By examining taped sessions and interviews with parents and students, they discovered that homework helped third graders learn responsibility and develop time-management and job-management skills. De Jong and colleagues (2000) argue that when students are grouped on the basis of ability, teachers assign more homework to high-performing students than to low-performing students, perhaps because they expect more from the high achievers (Burstein 1993). In "The Homework Myth" (2006), Kohn says calling the relationship between homework and achievement inconclusive may be too generous, arguing there is no conclusive evidence that homework provides any benefits—either academic or nonacademic—to students. ” Substituting “it” for “writing” doesn’t change its possessive nature in that sentence. Cooper and colleagues (2006) say many of the "negative effects attributed to homework contradict the suggested positive effects" (8). Research comparing the effects of the various types of homework on academic achievement is far less exhaustive. If students get too much it might get to be overwhelming, or get in the way of other healthy activities like strong friendships, play, sports, music lessons, hobbies or relaxation. Such circumstances as parents working several jobs, frequent moves, and crowded homes make it difficult to complete homework or any at-home academic learning (Scott-Jones 1984; McDermott, Goldman, and Varenne 1984). It is really annoying, but all that I would like to see would be a little less homework rather than completely abolishing it. ). And no more of those rigid schedules – let the students come and go wherever they want to in the school. 2001, 216). Notably, the frequency of homework assignments and the amount of time students spent on them were not related to achievement. Because of its possible negative effects of decreasing students' motivation and interest, thereby indirectly impairing performance, homework should be assigned judiciously and moderately. 1998). For example, differences in students' attention spans and study habits may account for differences in homework's effects. 2006). Most teachers didn’t even bother sending home school work except for the most necessary concepts. Let us keep in mind what the final goal is here-students understanding and using concepts and skills. Cooper goes on to explain that homework has both positive and negative effects on various aspects of students' lives. In other words, Keith's model does not explicitly show a causal link between homework and achievement, but it shows that such a link is possible. Zho Qiliang said: “The police officers said that they climbed to the second floor via the bamboo beside the house and when they couldn’t find a way down, they chose to jump off”. The lack of unequivocal connections between homework and learning, combined with strong opinions both for and against homework, may spur policymakers to take a closer look at the issue. ” In that context, the “i-t-s” is possessive and, therefore, should not have an apostrophe, which is only used to write the contraction of “it is. After all, if the tougher grading system that used to be in place is applied to your current grades, your GPA would be significantly lower than its current 4. However, these types of homework are often studied independently. If your child is struggling with a particular assignment, you could help her approach the problem positively by getting her to pinpoint what she’s finding difficult. In an effort to compare these two homework practices, Foyle (1985) examined their effectiveness in tenth-grade American history. On the issue of the actual educational value of homework, it may seem straightforward to many educators that reviewing lessons and practicing concepts after school would correlate to a greater retention of course material, but studies suggest that the link between assigned homework and academic achievement is drastically overinflated. To ensure your learning outside the classroom continues, the difference between “effect” and “affect” is that the former is a noun and the latter is a verb. He spend less hours worrying about homework outside of school, which left him feeling more positive to return to school the next day. Some researchers report that despite media reports of a public revolt against homework, the majority of parents, educators, and policymakers support homework. While the use of incentives has been shown to increase homework completion rates, most such studies have focused on learning disabled students in math classes and failed to examine the effects of teacher feedback on other groups of students or in other content areas. Bempechat (2004) argues that younger students' social and cognitive abilities—such as their inability to focus adequately—may moderate the effect of homework on achievement. Make a rule NO HOMEWORK !!!! The decision was reached out of the realization that worksheets and other assignments had been assigned merely out of a sense of obligation to dole our homework to students. You make some very good points, and to ensure your learning continues, may I offer the following: 1) it’s “effects” not the verb “affects,” 2) there’s no reason to put the comma after ‘homework,’ 3) phrasing should be “for the simple reason that it is ruining…,” 4) instead of a comma after “school,” there should be a semi-colon. My 2nd grader’s teacher likes to give homework that require parents to do most of the leg work, like finding news articles, reading to them the child (newspaper articles are way above 2nd grader’s literacy level) and then helping the child write about them for a class presentation. Epstein (1988) examined homework, parent involvement, and student achievement in elementary schools. However, it may also be possible that teachers use homework in early grades to establish routines, instill a sense of responsibility, and help students learn time management, rather than for any immediate gains in achievement. I think homework should be stopped! It sounds as though it’s gotten progressively worse over the years. What a relief! The types of homework are further classified by the amount of homework assigned, which includes both frequency, or how often homework is assigned, and length of completion, or time involved to complete homework (Cooper do kids benefit from homework 1989a). The results, while not clear cut, suggest the following lessons: The central lesson of this body of research is that homework is not a strategy that works for all children. If they aren’t right, they go back to figure out why or ask. This renewed interest led to the view that homework was a necessary tool in the learning process (albeit not for elementary school children). Other than that, you wrote better than some of the Internet writers being paid for their writing. Balli (1998) discovered that when parents help their sixth-grade children with homework, the students believe they do better in school—regardless of how they feel about working with their parents. Homework is a time to learn without distractions. Administrators explained their decision by pointing to the large majority of students who lacked at-home resources to help them with their homework. The homework debate has gone in cycles (Cooper, Robinson, and Patall 2006) since the late 1800s, when children in elementary school (then considered to be grades one through four) rarely received homework and those in grammar school (grades five through eight) typically received two to three hours' worth each night (Gill and Schlossman, 2004). For instance, although student achievement has been found to be higher in classes where homework was assigned than in classes without homework, methodological weaknesses temper the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. Homework also has potentially negative associations, one involving students' economic status. In addition, a study by Balli, Wedman, and Demo (1997) reported mixed reviews of the impact of parent involvement on student achievement. Students on tests (Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development 2004). Although this study did not examine the impact of such feedback on student achievement, the results could indicate the level of importance teachers place on homework, which may indirectly influence the rate at which students complete it. Children are the flowers of the nation. Although the link between parent involvement in homework and student learning is far from clear, students from lower-income households may not have as much support at home as those from more affluent families; as a result, homework may not be a valuable learning experience for them. Thank goodness for that. The positive and negative effects of homework can be grouped into categories. The link between assignment of homework and student achievement is far from clear, as noted by Cooper and other researchers (Trautwein and Koller 2003). Thats dumb. They concluded that homework completed outside of the school day had a greater impact on grades and achievement test scores than homework completed in study hall or elsewhere during the school day. This can give them a negative attitude towards the subject. “I have calculated that I have averaged only two to three ‘teaching’ days per week, depending upon re-teaching for those hard to conquer standards and testing,” Linder says. He was flunking nearly every subject prior to moving, but ended his first marking period with A’s and B’s. Findings from this rigorous study revealed that high levels of family involvement were not significantly associated with high levels of academic achievement. If he’s using a computer that’s connected to the internet, you might want to keep it in a shared family area so you can keep an eye on the sites he’s visiting. S. The results showed a positive association between the amount of homework and students' grades for children in grades six through ten and a negative association for children in grades two through four.