Do critique literature review

Publicado em Agosto 2017

And we have some serious reservations about the principle of translation which would make it the duty of a translator to modify the text so as to facilitate application. It identifies clearly the requirement for more research that is of improved clarity of purpose and method. Matt. The inclusion criteria were that the epidemiological papers selected should have been published in peer-reviewed journals in the subject areas of: medicine, nursing, psychology, pharmacology and toxicology. (7) The Immanuel Prophecy The preface dwells upon the case of Isaiah 7:14, and so we will take up that issue here. 6 million more people every year in the European Union 2. We cannot help but notice that, in their treatment of messianic passages of the Old Testament, the editors claimed that they were sticklers for the exact meaning of Hebrew words, and that their "unswerving focus on accuracy" prevented them from translating these passages with the New Testament's application of them to Jesus Christ in view; but when we come to the translation of masculine terms they are quite ready to swerve, with the plea that these must be avoided or neutralized so that modern female readers can apply the teachings and promises of the text to themselves. There is an assumption here, that when there is no "ecclesiastical" pressure, there is no pressure to make the text read "a certain way. The heresy of Marcion—that the Old Testament was not a Christian book—has been vigorously contested in the Christian Church wherever and whenever it has appeared and in whatever form it has appeared. In Psalm 45:6 the translator understands the word אלהים as a vocative meaning "God," and so the verse is translated "Your throne, O God, is permanent. Social cohesion of communities and families before calamities occur and their restoration as soon as possible afterwards, restoring communications between people, and keeping families together are core to reducing people’s suffering and promoting their effective recovery. The concept of the version was that it would be freely available on the internet from the beginning. In 2005 the "First Edition" (i. Thereby, the responsible authorities can create a dynamic, flexible and needs-led approach to mounting effective responses to flooding. They conclude that clarification is required about what constitutes best practice in each of these areas. " Thereafter, the annotator adopts an agnostic attitude in his notes. G. 164), and he argues that the writers of the Old Testament did not always understand the full meaning of their own words: "The Apostle Peter intimates that do critique literature review the prophets searched diligently into the meaning of their own predictions. These emendations to the text of Isaiah 3:12-13 were not invented by the NET Bible editors; they are in the margin of the critical edition of the Hebrew text used by the translators, the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, and they enjoy some scholarly support. These actions are important components of Psychological First Aid 68, which is now agreed internationally to be an important set of principles for psychosocial care. This has directly impacted the content: Translators and editors are free to follow where the text leads and translate as they see best. The body of Christ has been around for nearly two thousand years, and it is no small thing to be responsible to it. However, flooding also stands out from some other types of disasters because, often, it is possible to prevent flooding by using flood-prevention measures, and because of the lengthy recovery period afterwards, which increases the risks of secondary stressors arising and the impact of worry about recurrence on people who are affected by floods. When David said God had put "all things" under the feet of man, he probably little thought that "all things" meant the whole universe. There is only one, with a range of proposed meanings, including "buy," "acquire," "create," and "produce. The passages used to support this contention are too numerous to list here. In Isaiah 8:9-10 the prophet delivers an announcement of future victory over Israel’s enemies; the special child Immanuel, alluded to in the last line of v. (12) Christians of past generations never did this. " The annotator cannot bring himself to say, "Paul's. Emotional engagement and social connectedness) of veterans who have PTSD, may alleviate their anxiety and depressive symptoms and improve their positive emotional and cognitive functioning 66. The primary strength of the version is its value as a free internet resource for fledgling scholars who would otherwise have no convenient access to the kind of grammatical and text-critical information presented in the notes. I think there is. " The New Testament treatment of the Old Testament is a complex subject, and we cannot treat it fully here. Hall Harris (the General Editor), Daniel B. Later revelation serves to complement and supplement what has come before. Were all these translators just ignorant? This is a notable departure from the usual method of translation committees, in which the text is established by a consensus of the committee. And there are already several versions which present a more idiomatic translation for readers who need one. Caiaphas did not realize what God intended by his words, but these words happened to be prophetic, and John knew the meaning. In a very real sense, the NET Bible is responsible to the universal body of Christ. The Bible’s clear statements affirming the virgin birth of Christ are not in question here by either the NET Bible or its translators—it is merely a question of which is the most faithful English rendering of the meaning of the original text of Isa 7:14 in Hebrew. " Obviously we have problems with the genderless "child" when we arrive at the warning given to him or her beginning in verse 24, concerning the dangers of loose women! In our 1997 survey, 41 percent of the Usage Panel rejected the sentence As mock inquisitors grill him, top aides take notes and critique the answers with the President afterward. On the other hand, the research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of common mental disorders after flooding is substantially increased and that these disorders can persist long after the flooding has passed. Better design of research instruments would help researchers to appraise people’s common experiences and symptoms rather than a narrow subset, and might provide better information about the duration, severity and effects of people’s experiences and symptoms. " In another article ( Wittenberg 2002) he suggested that because "justification by faith alone" is "not do critique literature review as easy to find in James, Peter, or Jude" as it is in Paul's epistles, this indicates that "they did not see things quite the same way as Paul did," and so perhaps it is not a "necessary doctrine for salvation" and does not belong to "the core of the gospel. However, the vast majority of the studies took place between six months and 24 months after the index event. It seems that the author of this explanation wants to have it both ways: the Immanuel prophecy is merely "a sign for King Ahaz" in which "the role or birth of the Messiah does not come into view," but through a bit of fuzzy logic he manages to give some room to the idea that "the child who would be the ultimate fulfillment" of the Immanuel prophecy is Christ. The lessons learned about the relationship between flooding and its impacts on mental health may be applicable to other disasters as well. Those who are wise to this well-known fact of pastoral ministry will think twice before removing the word "man" from the Bible. As the review observes, the studies analysed in it illustrate how floods can have great impacts on people’s psychosocial needs and mental health. The documents offer access to practical guidance for managers, public health services and clinical services. The need for greater discipline in defining and using terminology is another important message. Netbible. But the NET Bible interprets these statements as referring only to mankind in general, and by its paraphrastic use of plural pronouns it simply excludes the Christological interpretation. So the historical and theological contexts of the verse support the grammatical: the word עלמה ( almah) means “young woman” and should be translated as such. The basic reason for this opinion among conservatives is that we want to credit John with historical accuracy, rather than supposing that he freely altered the facts or invented fictitious accounts of Christ's ministry to suit his own theological purposes, as the liberals do. In the preface of the NET Bible we find a long but very inadequate discussion of this matter, (5) in which the New Testament interpretations are said to be "clarifications," but at the same time it is denied that these clarifications should have any influence over the translation. Therefore, we must understand that David "foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. Results Often, people’s experiences, which reflect the personal and social meanings of the event for them, and the understandings and meanings they derive from it, have more influence on the psychosocial impact of the event than the event itself. When the New Testament of the RSV was slightly revised for the publication of the complete RSV Bible in 1953, they added a footnote here, "Or, make use of your present condition instead. Through publication on the Internet and free distribution of the text, the editors and translators have sought to submit the NET Bible to their brothers and sisters in Christ all over the world. We also note that in the NET Bible a "faithful follower" has supplanted the "Holy One" in the translation of חסיד. The authors did not explore in their report the secondary health impacts of disasters, the pathways from disasters to mental ill health, or the consequential impacts of developing a mental disorder. An example is in Proverbs 6:20, where the word for "son" appears in the Hebrew, but the NET Bible has "child. However, some people require assessment by primary care services if their symptoms persist or are associated with dysfunction. The result is, the translation itself is not very useful for close study. " One who declares that Christ "does not come into view" in the Immanuel prophecy can hardly share the spirit of Matthew 1:23. The HPA responded by: This paper summarises the methodology used in that review, and sets the findings into the context framed by: current and immediate past policy in England; guidance offered by international governing bodies (the World Health Organization and NATO) and non-governmental authorities; and a selection of recent advice from academic and other sources. The Koehler-Baumgartner lexicon (2001) lists this occurrence as a niphal form of נסך under "woven, shaped," and, with different vowel points, as a form of סכך (as suggested by Kittel), which it interprets as "made into shape. Studies showing increases in PTSD following flooding came from Europe and North America, with limited evidence reported about suicide in relation to flooding. Ii. The translation should be much more literal than it is now. The only place where we have found the subject addressed is in a "tc" note on Ephesians 1:1, where the question of this epistle's authorship is raised because of its bearing on a text-critical issue. The majority of papers that the authors reviewed consider population samples of adults who are affected by a particular flood. Iv. Finally, there are a number of methodological challenges that arise when conducting research and when analysing and comparing data on the psychosocial and mental health impacts of floods. We cannot overlook the rationalistic presuppositions of their approach, which practically excludes the apostolic interpretations of the Old Testament. Wallace's suggestion that the interpretations of the apostles are "hermeneutically or exegetically invalid," and that they involve a failure to understand the Old Testament, is especially troubling. There is something perverse about any analysis of the words which will not admit that probability, and which insists that only בתולה can mean "virgin. One should write, "C. The annotators of John's Gospel often use the cumbersome phrase "the author of the Fourth Gospel" instead of simply writing "John. do critique literature review 15-16. While most people who are involved in disasters recover with the support of their families, friends and colleagues, the effects on some people’s health, relationships and welfare can be extensive and sustained. ) The statement that Athanasius "translated it, 'constituted me as the head of creation'" is doubly false. The HPA has identified the responsibilities that should fall on a number of public and other organisations to plan and deliver improved services to support people who are affected by flooding with the intention of reducing their suffering, reducing the risks of them developing long-term mental disorders that are so very costly across the full diversity of meaning of that concept, and aiding recovery of imperilled communities and families. This verse is quoted in the Gospel according to Matthew (1:26), in which it is explained that Isaiah's prophecy concerning the child named Immanuel is fulfilled in the virgin birth of Christ. " This agrees with the quotation of the verse in Hebrews 1:8, where the words are applied to Christ. Gender-Neutral Language The most conspicuous feature of academic political correctness in the past thirty years has been the demand for the use of "non-sexist" gender-neutral language. Why do the NET Bible editors say that their version is unique in its independence? In their 2005 review on the global health impacts of flooding, Ahern et al 3 report a number of epidemiological studies which examined the effects of flooding on common mental disorders (including anxiety and depression), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide. But there is an avoidance of the words "son," "man," and "men" when the translators felt that the sense would not be affected by putting in their place "child," "person," "people," etc. However, the NET Bible has "young woman" instead of "virgin" as a translation for עלמה ( almah) in this verse. The mortality relating to flooding is variable and depends on the enormity or otherwise of each extreme event and term paper on chocolate the capability of the rescue and recovery services. The authors assessed all of the papers for their suitability for inclusion in the review by applying the strict epidemiological criteria that are cited in Ahern et al 3 . " Why should we expect Isaiah to use one ambiguous word instead of another? The "sn" note at Isaiah 8:8 presents "several reasons for considering Immanuel and Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz one and the same," without even mentioning other interpretations which are more widely accepted. " In a review of Bart Ehrman's recent book Misquoting Jesus ( The Gospel according to Bart), Wallace stated that in his teaching he urges his students to distinguish "core beliefs from peripheral beliefs," and he suggests that inerrancy should be regarded as one of the "peripheral beliefs," which do not belong among the "cardinal doctrines," and which should not be "elevated to the status of a prime doctrine. This information should not be considered complete, up to dna phd repair thesis date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. '" There is no mention of the interpretation suggested by Metzger in the passage quoted above, or of others commonly found in scholarly literature and English versions. The Scholars Version is authorized by scholars. They do not acknowledge a sensus plenior in the text, they treat it in such a way that the meaning is limited to the presumed intentions of human authors. They should also be available to deliver focused specialist services for people who may have mental disorders that are provoked or exacerbated by their involvement in floods. It would be to their advantage if the editors were to get a clearer sense of the purpose of the version. It also draws together key themes and recommendations that emerge in the HPA’s report. " (15) In 1953 the faculty of Dallas Theological Seminary issued a scathing Critique of the Revised Standard Version for this manner of treating the Old Testament. They are found also in the New English Bible (notorious for its emendations) and its successor, the Revised English Bible. The authors developed an algorithm and used the Scopus search engine to search for all papers with the specified search terms in their titles, abstracts or as keywords (Scopus is a search tool that scans and has access to many large academic databases including Medline (pubmed), Embase, Psychinfo, and covers 15,000 peer-reviewed journals as well as conference proceedings and book series). Furthermore, recently published results from a randomized trial provide provisional evidence that psychosocial interventions, which target the resilience resources (e. The first to supercede the "beta" editions) was put online, and was also published in a printed edition. And if we can, is it really proper for a translator to render the text in such a way that this sense is excluded? (Rom. The discussion identifies the challenges faced by the researchers in this area. Within the book of Isaiah itself, however, the author begins to develop the theological context of this verse, and this provides a connection to the use of the passage in Matthew. One of the environmental risks that may threaten people’s mental health is posed by disasters, which include flooding. " Matthew's interpretation must be accepted as a true interpretation in accordance with the Author's original intention. There is no pressure to make sure the text reads a certain way. One must avoid, for instance, the politically incorrect "A. These are important questions. " This is a very helpful note, as far as it goes, (23) and we have no objection to these renderings. Here the Septuagint is taken seriously as a source of information about various readings in the ancient Hebrew manuscripts, but the New Testament citation of this verse is not even mentioned. D. The Old Testament was added in 2000, and in 2002 some of the Apocrypha appeared online. Although the verse itself is translated in such a way that Matthew's typological interpretation of "my son" is do critique literature review possible (cf. However, a consistent finding across many studies is that people’s level of exposure to the event and their earlier exposures to other traumatic experiences are strongly associated with PTSD. " It also stated that these scholars were "assisted by doctoral students. The methodology used was similar to that used in a global epidemiological review that was published in 2005 on the health impacts of flooding 3. The Health Protection Agency’s report on the outcomes and recommendations from the peer-reviewed literature, and selected governmental policy and non-governmental guidance, provides a picture that is based on key messages from research and expert consensus. The human authors were perhaps not fully aware of what God intended by the words he caused them to write. Flooding is now the most frequent type of major disaster. The argument against the rendering "virgin" depends upon the idea that in Hebrew only the word בתולה ( bethulah) carried the sense "virgin," and so if Isaiah had wished to convey that sense he would have used that word, and not the word עלמה. Each of the documents that the HPA reviewed offers practical guidance for policymakers, strategic and operational managers, public health services and clinical services. It means 'installed, set. The review indicates that flooding affects people of all ages, can exacerbate or provoke mental health problems, and highlights the importance of secondary stressors in prolonging the psychosocial impacts of flooding. Resistance is still high when a person is critiqued: 60 percent of the Usage Panel rejects its use in the sentence Students are taught how to do a business plan and then are critiqued on it. " Here a translator's note calls attention to the fact that "this is one of the clearest statements in the NT concerning the deity of Christ," explains that the rendering is supported by the "Granville Sharp rule" of Greek syntax, and refers the reader to Wallace's Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics for more information. We get from one thing to the other by a "theological development. The author of Hebrews 2:6-8 has perceived that these statements go beyond anything that can be attributed to mankind in general, and he understands them as referring to Christ, as the ideal "man," to whom all authority and honor truly belongs. The explanation given in the NET Bible resembles Terry's, but it is not the same, because the NET Bible explains the matter in terms of a "development," not in terms of a typological foreshadowing and fulfillment. But then again in the epistles of John (all three) we have "the author," and likewise in the epistles of Peter. This concept of divine authorship and intent, which presupposes the verbal inspiration of the Biblical books, is involved when theologians speak of a sensus plenior or "fuller sense" of Scripture which transcends the immediate context. The authors also sought data that is available from government and non-governmental organisations and took advice from experts in the field on what research was in press or in process as well as seeking their knowledge of what other sources of information they knew. G. " In our generation many translators are too eager to interpret the Bible for readers, and people are too often misled by versions that present questionable interpretations. The most charitable construction we can put on this is that it indicates a skewed sense of priorities, under the influence of secular academic trends. (19) The Margin Most are labeled "tn" for "translator note," and these are sometimes highly technical, using grammatical terms which few readers will understand. Another example of this approach may be seen in the "tn" note on Psalm 8:5, where the editors explain that "the referent of אלהים ( elohim, 'God' or 'the heavenly beings') is unclear," despite the fact that in the Epistle to the Hebrews (2:5-9) the author clearly bases his interpretation on the rendering "angels. But we note with disappointment that when the editors do offer an explanation of it in their preface, they do not acknowledge the true reason for their avoidance of the word "men," and instead they repeat the evasive claim often made by proponents of gender-neutral language, that a phrase like "fishers of men" would be misunderstood by modern readers. The "tc" note at Hosea 11:1 reveals an astonishing disregard for the New Testament. Ten years earlier, 69 percent disapproved of this same sentence. Much turns on the severity, duration, impacts of these experiences on people’s lives, and, particularly, the trajectory of their reactions over time, and the severity and persistence of any dysfunction they accrue, when it comes to differentiating distress term paper on abortion and disorder. " The issue here is not just the meaning of one Hebrew word; it concerns our whole view of the relationship between the Old and New Testaments. As a result, the authors analysed the content of guidance documents, research reports, and other papers. But the "tn" note here, following the lead of recent liberal commentators, ignores the New Testament interpretation, and explains that the verse should be translated this way because it is an instance of "royal hyperbole. The 2005 epidemiological review included a section on the mental health effects of flooding; searching the literature from 2004 onwards allowed the authors to review the results of more recent studies which were not included in the epidemiological review published in 2005, building upon what was already established with new studies. , 2. This does not mean that the project is not responsible to anyone. For example, in Psalm 8:5-6 the NET Bible has "you grant mankind honor and majesty, you appoint them to rule over your creation; you have placed everything under their authority" where the Hebrew says, The images and metaphors do kids do homework of the Hebrew verse—the man, his crown, his feet, and God's hands—disappear through the use of more general and abstract words in the NET Bible translation. Method of Translation The method of translation used in the NET Bible in its present form (2006) is inconsistent, but in general it is less literal than the New International Version. There are however some places where the NET Bible has actually falsified the sense by avoiding masculine nouns. In November 2003 a "second beta edition" of the whole Bible was put online. Evidently the version was almost entirely a project of the members of the DTS faculty, assisted by their students. " The NET Bible editors favored a similar rendering—"heavenly beings"—not because of anything in the New Testament, but because they see here "an allusion to Gen 1:26-27. The New Testament author draws from this development and uses the original passage in Isaiah to make the connection between the child originally promised and the child who would be the ultimate fulfillment of that initial promise. The same note is found at Titus 2:13, in explanation of the rendering "our great God and Savior Jesus Christ. This is why much of the evidence relates to people who develop a narrow selection of mental disorders. ' (20) The writer of this note says that the "Greek and the Syriac versions have the meaning create," but εκτισεν in the Septuagint may also mean "established. This is an idea often expressed by naive people in the independent churches, who do not seem to be aware of how much their teachings depend upon theological traditions. Thus, it may be preferable to avoid this word as a verb. Evidence-based guidance on the factors that could influence the course of an illness are valuable when developing tools to minimise the psychosocial and mental health impacts of flooding. A number of scholars have pointed out that του θεου ημων και σωτηρος and του μεγαλου θεου και σωτηρος ημων were practically stock phrases in the Hellenistic culture, used in reference to mortal kings who were honored with divine titles. "the number of the men of the people of Israel," is arbitrarily paraphrased "the number of Israelites. Are the New Testament interpretations true, or aren't they? (10) In Psalm 16:10 the NET Bible's rendering "you will not allow your faithful follower to see the Pit" undermines the argument of Peter in Acts 2:25-31, where this clause is rendered οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν, "neither will you allow your Holy One to see corruption. E. He writes, "I am not going to elaborate on how these two can be harmonized; I only wish to note that respected evangelical theologians—whose bibliological commitments are not in doubt—embrace this thesis. Regarding this example, we observe that the RSV translators made the same mistake. The theological context of Isaiah 7:14 is also limited: it is a presentation of God’s divine power to show himself strong on behalf of his people. Acts 3:25-26 and Galatians 3:16) depend upon the ambiguity of the literal rendering. However, as in general population studies, levels of exposure to the event(s), gender, age, and socio-economic status were generally associated with mental ill health. " A note here rightly points out that the word איש does mean "man," and it explains that Scripture "often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. People who have responsibilities for emergency preparedness within governmental, non-governmental, service planning, and delivery organisations, and within the commercial sector, should also consider the short- and long-term psychosocial and mental health consequences of flooding. " This is accurate enough, and it requires no explanation or apology. Its preface claims that the עלמה in Isaiah 7:14 cannot refer to Mary, and that the word does not even mean "virgin. Clark, 1854-1858); James Orr, The Virgin Birth of Christ (New York: Charles Scribner's sons, 1907); and J. (28) Conspicuously absent from the "study notes" is any discussion of the authorship of the books of the New Testament. " If the other apostles "did not see things quite the same way as Paul did," he asks, dissertation criteria psychology "who are we to insist on beliefs and formulations that just might exclude even some of the apostles? Twenty-eight (28) of the papers assessed people’s mental health after hurricanes in America and 20 after floods. No one who wishes to be taken seriously at Princeton can afford to contradict the conventional wisdom on this subject, and on many other subjects. This provides some context for the Introduction's statement that the translators were "chosen in every instance because of his or her work in that particular book. 165. Essentially, if there is room for formal (as opposed to substantive) contradiction within the Bible in one direction, why not the other? " (21) He also fails to indicate that the other Greek versions done in ancient times (by Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion) all have εκτησατο "he possessed," and the Vulgate has possedit. 8. " (This is like saying, "the author of The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"—as if we didn't know it was Martin Luther. But the preface does not address them squarely. The claim that the NET Bible is "unique among translations" in its freedom from "ecclesiastical control" seems to imply that other versions in common use have been produced under the direct control of ecclesiastical officials. " The identity of this "consultant" is not revealed, but there is good reason to suppose that it was Wallace, who has published a number of articles on the subject of textual criticism. They never imagined that the Old Testament could be understood rightly apart from the interpretations of it given in the New Tesament. We observe that another NET Bible translator gives a more accurate rendering of this same Hebrew phrase in Nehemiah 7:7, "the number of Israelite men," and notes that "Some English versions translate as 'the people from Israel' (NCV) or 'the Israelite people' (NRSV), but 'men' should be retained because the following numbers presumably include only adult males. The authors considered one study that researched the somatic effects of mental ill health 9, another that researched substance misuse 50, and others that have considered gender-based violence 27 28 29. However, we are left wondering why του θεου ημων και σωτηρος in 2 Peter 1:1 and του μεγαλου θεου και σωτηρος ημων in Titus 2:13 do not receive the same exegetical treatment as was given to אלהים in Psalm 45:6 and אל in Isaiah 9:6. Parents’ wellbeing, for example, affects the quality of their parenting; people’s direct experiences and those that affect their carers may, separately and in interaction, either protect them or intensify the negative effects on children and older people. It is argued that such a treatment of the Old Testament is needed if we wish to have an accurate picture of the progress of revelation: A very important concept for understanding the translation philosophy of the NET Bible and how these three contexts work together is progressive revelation. Further research is needed on the longitudinal effects of flooding on people’s mental health, the effects of successive flooding on populations, and the effects of flooding on the mental health of children, young people and older people and people who respond to the needs of other persons in the aftermath of disasters. The note on קנה contains false and misleading statements, and it tries to dismiss the other renderings of the Hebrew word as ignorant or theologically biased. " ( Anno Domini) in dates, because it means "the year of our Lord," and this is thought to be offensive to Jews. Government organisations are advised to work with research funding agencies to identify priorities and to develop research evidence of increasing quality and relevance to policymakers. " Actually, a more helpful note would have explained that אנשי should be understood 'laymen of' here, because the priests, levites, and other temple workers are enumerated separately; but this annotator is preoccupied with the need to apologize for not suppressing the word entirely—as his colleague did in Ezra 2:2. The New Testament portion of the version first went online in October of 1998 at www. " We know very well that he did use the Anglo-Saxon word "maiden" in that sense, although he also used the Old French word "virgin" in his plays. Flooding can pose substantial social and mental health problems that may continue over extended periods of time. Local healthcare services should be aware that a substantial minority of people may develop mental disorders in the medium- and longer-terms after flooding. For instance, at liberal "mainline" seminaries, such as the one at Princeton University, it is a regarded as a settled fact that there are two irreconcilable narratives of creation in the opening chapters of Genesis. But evidently בתולה does not unambiguously refer to a virgin, because in Genesis 24:16, Leviticus 21:3, and Judges 21:12 the biblical authors add to the word such phrases as "who had not known a man," which are obviously designed to make sure that the word is understood in the specific sense of "virgin. Apparently it was originally conceived as a Bible for students who required a fairly literal translation for close study, with detailed exegetical notes; but revisions moved the text in a paraphrastic direction, as if it had to be understandable to uneducated and casual readers, to those who are offended at "sexist" language, and even to such dull readers as those who cannot understand obvious metaphors (e. " Here the version has begun a new sentence because the salutation has been "divided into shorter English sentences in keeping with contemporary English style," as a footnote explains, and the word "our" has been added before "apostleship" so as to "to clarify the sense of the statement. It also offers an overview of the HPA’s recommendations to the responsible authorities and agencies about developments to the research agenda and service developments that are informed by the messages from recent research and expert opinion. Athanasius was interpreting a Greek sentence, he wrote in Greek, and his interpretion of this phrase cannot be summarized 'constituted me as the head of creation. Will anyone who aspires to be taken seriously at Princeton contradict this opinion? Secular scholars cannot safely ignore it, even when preparing translations of ancient literature, and some renderings in the NET Bible can only be understood as a consequence of this pressure. 10, is a guarantee that the covenant promises of God will result in future greatness. Other statements made by Wallace in recent years have provoked objections. This problem frequently occurs in the NET Bible. These notes are in need of some careful revision. He does not attribute the epistle to Paul, but prefers to speak of "the author" of the epistle. I do not see how anyone who has studied the arguments in the Discourse against the Arians can think that Athanasius understood the phrase to mean 'constituted me as the head of creation. Wallace (Senior New Testament Editor) and Robert B. " To put it more plainly, we are asked to think that here a king is lightly addressed as "God" by a court poet who is laying it on thick, as we say, with a bit of exuberant flattery. The role or birth of the Messiah does not come into view here. The HPA identified 48 papers which met its criteria. At the very least, we must recognize a messianic sensus plenior in the Immanuel prophecy. They will be helpful to advanced students, but many of these "tn" notes are tiresome and tendentious (e. (25) In 1 Corinthians 7:21 the translator research paper about business has adopted a very questionable interpretation, in which Paul seems to be advising slaves to seek freedom ("if indeed you are able to be free, make the most of the opportunity"), without providing a note that gives the more likely interpretation do critique literature review (cf. They map well onto the stepped strategic model of care that is policy in England and recommended by NATO. In the Old Testament, the translators seem to have preferred the Masoretic text, although they often abandon it in places where small difficulties arise. The authors made the decision to include hurricanes leading to flooding because of the difficulties in classifying disasters. We identify the requirement for more research on: children and young people; older people; and people who respond to others needs in the aftermath of major events or disasters. The NET Bible was produced by a team of translators under the direction of W. " (14) Ramm associated this negative "use of the grammatico-historical method of exegesis in the hands of the religious liberals" with "radical criticism" and characterized it as "a return of Marcionism. Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament (4 vols. Apparently it meant so little to them that it was not even a factor in their decision to retain "my son" in Hosea 11:1. Flooding can pose substantial social and welfare problems that may continue over extended periods of time because of not only being flooded (the primary stressor), but also because of the secondary stressors (those stressors that are indirectly related to the initial extreme event, i. Regarding other aspects of the interpretation of the Immanuel prophecy, see the discussions in Ernst W. " The reason for this suppression of a masculine word is not hard to guess, but did the translator not notice that this is likely to be misleading? In "An Apologia for a Broad View of Ipsissima Vox" (presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society in November, 1999), Wallace claimed that in a certain place Luke "altered the meaning of Jesus' words. Unless readers know that only the men were counted in an ancient Jewish census (cf. , it attributes to the λόγος (Word) all the essential or defining qualities of God himself. 6. Most people’s psychosocial needs are met through their close relationships with their families, friends and communities. The child mentioned in Isaiah 7:14 is a pledge of God’s presence during the time of Ahaz, but he also is a promise of God’s presence in the future when he gives his people victory over all their enemies. Subsequently, it will be possible to look at the impacts on public health of people’s psychosocial experiences and needs as well as the effects on populations of mental disorders. Brown defines it thus: The sensus plenior is that additional, deeper meaning, intended by God but not clearly intended by the human author, which is seen to exist in the words of a biblical text (or group of texts, or even a whole book) when they are studied in the light of further revelation or development in the understanding of revelation. All healthcare agencies should be aware of the distress that flooding may cause people who are affected. (18) We also notice that in the following verse (3:13), the NET Bible needlessly emends the Hebrew עמים "peoples" to עמו "his people," simply because "his people" seems to fit better in the context. The literature is not clear about the impact of floods in provoking more people than might otherwise do so to develop anxiety disorders, depression and PTSD. (16) The NET Bible editors seem to take it for granted that there is something wrong with the kind of "ecclesiastical" influence that would tend to make Bible translations reflect the traditions of historic Christian orthodoxy. We also would like to see the un-Christian treatment of the Old Testament repaired, but it seems that the editors have committed themselves to this approach. There are, however, indications that both children and older people suffer PTSD after flooding and that the prevalence figures may well be greater than those that are found for adults of working age. To put it very briefly, we will say that the New Testament authors often interpreted passages of the Old Testament in ways that go quite beyond the literary or historical contexts of the passages. " (p. Informing the reader over and over again that ανθρωποι needs to be translated "people" because it is inclusive of women) or merely trivial, and clutter the page to no purpose. In common with other types of major incidents or disasters, the effects on people’s health, relationships and welfare can be extensive. It is found not only in the versions done before the discovery of the Ugaritic literature, but also in such modern versions as the NASB, NKJV, and ESV. These ancient theologians did not know Hebrew, and they did not refer to the Hebrew text. This handling of the matter is clearly better than the usual procedure in English versions, in which the phrase is rendered "the Word was God" without explanation, and readers are left wondering how the Word "was with God" and also "was God. In Ezra 2:2 the phrase מספר אנשי עם ישראל, lit. " But this is very far from being true, because not all pressures come from the Church. (At that time, the Septuagint was used as an authoritative source in every theological dispute. Matthew's Gospel (e. We notice that in the NET Bible, the willful "brother" does not disappear from Matthew 18:15-17, the cowering "women" are still to be seen in Isaiah 19:16, and the masculine singular pronouns are not removed from Psalm 1. There is no exact synonym, but in most contexts one can usually substitute go over, review, or analyze. But this is not true. Usage Note: Critique has been used as a verb meaning "to review or discuss critically" since the 18th century, but lately this usage has gained much wider currency, in part because the verb criticize, once neutral between praise and censure, is now mainly used in a negative sense. Instead, we are given an evasive argument in which "clarifications" do not really clarify, and in which Matthew's citation somehow ends up in the class of "traditional" renderings, the acceptance of which "would not be pleasing to God. Primary care and specialist mental health services should recognise the long duration of the stress that affects people after they are inundated, the high frequency of secondary stressors and the author’s finding that PTSD symptoms do not necessarily remit rapidly after flooding. An example of this is at Proverbs 8:22, rendered "the LORD created me as the beginning of his works," and with the following note: There are several problems here. 1. Discussion In addition to these inconsistencies, the recent literature on disasters, especially that on flooding, has tended to focus on the single and narrow concept of PTSD. The editors expect to receive criticism, particularly on this passage, from those who are against all modern translations. They include the current policy on psychosocial and mental health care in the set of contemporary emergency preparedness guidance published by the Department of Health for England 59 and a report on the research conducted by the University of Lancaster on the psychosocial and welfare impacts of the floods that occurred in England in 2007 63. Translators should leave application to the reader, and to pastors. " But we do not grant that the bibliological commitments of those who embrace this thesis are beyond doubt. Understanding the overlaps between the steps can be facilitated by incorporating knowledge of the: Public health measures that are put in place after floods should include considering the social as well as psychological impacts of events, and especially because evidence suggests that good social support can act as a protective factor against negative psychological and psychiatric impacts of being flooded. Conclusions The frequency of floods is increasing. Only one (William Barrick) has no obvious connection to Dallas Theological Seminary. (27) If these verses are indeed authentic, as the "tc" note concludes, then the prohibition must be taken seriously; its scope cannot be restricted to an imaginary setting of bygone days. Bernard Ramm writes: The conviction of the early Church was that the Old Testament was a Christian book. ) Unlike Wallace, Hodge taught that the text is verbally inspired, not merely a result of a conceptual inspiration. (8) We think this writer "protests too much. In the first edition of their New Testament (1946) they gave the rendering "if you can gain your freedom, avail yourself of the opportunity," without a footnote. This emphasises the need to reduce the impact of primary and secondary stressors on people affected by flooding and the importance of narrative approaches to differentiate distress from mental disorder. In addition, other guidance 55 56 57 58 60 61 62 64 and research 63 which offers theoretical standpoints and outline, directly or by implication, models of care for responding to the psychosocial and mental health impacts of disasters were also reviewed. The search generated 3,585 references and this number was reduced to 827 papers when the authors applied their exclusion criteria. " The note should have acknowledged the existence of these other interpretations. , 23, etc. When modern scholars cherish novelties, show contempt for the universal Church's heritage of interpretation, and boast of their independence from all "ecclesiastical" bodies, they minimize their responsibility to the Church. In the New Testament it is quoted to establish the divinity of Christ, but in the NET Bible it is interpreted as a piece of hyperbolic rhetoric. Flooding can challenge the psychosocial resilience of the hardiest of people who are affected. What is needed is a version that will be useful to the same readers who will benefit from the scholarly marginal apparatus. Specialist mental healthcare agencies should be prepared to provide advice to emergency planners, community healthcare services, and social care organisations. But in the same chapter where the words quoted by Wallace appear, Hodge gives four paragraphs in support of the traditional view that "the inspiration of the scriptures extends to the words" (p. ) And Moses, when he recorded the promise that childless Abraham was to be the father "of many nations," little thought that it meant the whole world. The size of the population samples was also very diverse, ranging from 50 to 33,000 people. The prophesying of women mentioned in 11:5 does not force us to such an unnatural interpretation of 14:34-35, because there is no need to suppose that the "prophesying" mentioned there could only have taken place in the weekly worship service that Paul is making rules for here. Projected climate-related increases in precipitation are likely to make floods more frequent and severe. The NET Bible editors handle Scripture in a modern historical-critical way, and they do not share the apostles' assumptions about its authorship and potential meanings, as described above. E. Students who are studying the notes of the NET Bible should realize that many of them barely scratch the surface of the interpretive issues, and they are no substitute for a comprehensive exegetical commentary. For example, depression is a diagnosis that is under-represented in the published data. My full discussion of this passage in 'Make Good Use of Your Servitude': Some Observations on Biblical Interpretation and Slavery (October, 2003). But as one reviewer pointed out, this rendering "illustrates how divergent interpretations of the same Greek may be introduced into the English translation when attempts are made to remove rather than to reproduce its ambiguity. To take but two examples: (1) the use of the OT in the NT, and (2) 2 Peter 3. '"—the article we have discussed above. (24) As we noted above, the NET Bible has explained אלהים in Psalm 45:6 and אל in Isaiah 9:6 as instances of such rhetorical deification, in imitation of the pagans, despite the fact that Psalm 45:6 is quoted as scriptural proof of Christ's divinity in the New Testament. Chisholm (Senior Old Testament Editor). The authors found, though, that social cohesion has a significant effect on susceptibility to symptoms of PTSD and it, therefore, must be considered when developing public health strategies. Documents that set out current policy in planning, designing and delivering healthcare responses for people who experience flooding and general disasters were reviewed 4 9 59 65. In particular, they should be aware of the HPA’s commentary on the existing research in this topic area and of its recommendations for future research and how it is conducted. Other notes, labeled "sn" for "study notes," give the kind of cultural background information that is often helpful for an accurate understanding of the text. So how will the NET Bible editors answer someone who interprets the "clearest statements in the NT concerning the deity of Christ" in 2 Peter 1:1 and Titus 2:13 in the same rationalistic way that they have treated Psalm 45:6 and Isaiah 9:6? The threshold between what might be considered a common or anticipated response to an extreme event and what is indicative of a person developing a disorder are difficult to define. As an example, the extended timeframe of the impacts of flooding on people, their homes and their communities are such that the effects of secondary stressors are highly important because they prolong the welfare, physical and psychosocial impacts. E. In his quotation, Matthew uses the Greek word παρθενος ( parthenos), which in the Hellenistic era usually had the meaning "virgin. " On the other hand, we do not find such a reluctance to say "Paul" in the notes to the Pastoral Epistles. It is designed to remove the offensive prohibition against women speaking in the worship service, by suggesting that in vv. E. This is especially to be regretted when we consider that the rendering "created" lends support to write academic paper heretical opinions. All three are professors at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS). In his paper " Is Intra-Canonical Theological Development Compatible with a High Bibliology? Accounts of the psychosocial impacts of flood events suggest that they can have significant effects on people’s wellbeing, relationships and mental health. The HPA found that there is a growing body of evidence which suggests that floods can have profound effects on people’s wellbeing, psychosocial resilience, relationships and mental health, often over extended periods of time. In the former case, many evangelicals would argue that the resultant message was right but the method for extracting it was hermeneutically or exegetically invalid. The distressing experiences that the majority of people experience transiently or for longer periods after disasters can be difficult to distinguish from symptoms of common mental disorders. "under his feet"). The authors found that the focus in the literature is on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is intended to: assess and appraise the epidemiological evidence on flooding and mental health; assess the existing guidance on emergency planning for the impacts of flooding on psychosocial and mental health needs; provide a detailed report for policymakers and services on practical methods to reduce the impacts of flooding on the mental health of affected people; and identify where research can support future evidence-based guidance. , economic stress associated with re-building) that arise as people try to recover their lives, property and relationships. G. But the Dead Sea Scrolls support the traditional text here, and the text is not problematic enough to justify these emendations. Notes on verses 4 and 15 discuss "the author's use" of a word and "the author's prayer. Recovery from distress after disasters, including flooding, is characterised by adaptation to circumstances that have changed and by rebuilding communities. A number of papers report research on samples taken from specific populations: six relate to people aged under 18 9 12 13 16 40 41; two studies were conducted in evacuation shelters after Hurricane Katrina 17 18; one specifically sampled ethnic minorities 15; one assessed patients evacuated from a heart centre 44; and one study was of pregnant women 14. The NET Bible is not funded by any denomination or church. The unbelieving scholars who created the academic culture where such requirements are in force consider themselves to be "independent" and "objective" thinkers, of course. Everyone is likely to require continuing psychosocial support. " and other such passages, for they easily take things to heart. Over the last 10 years, floods in Europe have killed more than 1,000 people and affected over 3. This would help the research community to address: who or which groups of people are more at risk; how and why certain groups of people suffer more; and what should be done in addition to current interventions to respond effectively to people’s needs. But the "tn" and "sn" notes cannot be relied upon to inform the reader where scholars differ on important points of interpretation. It makes a big difference when people understand that this is how great wealth was ordinarily gotten in the ancient Near East (and still is today in "third world" countries)— members of the ruling families were enriched by highway tolls and tariffs demanded from merchants, heavy taxes laid on farmers and artisans, tribute money and slaves taken from subjugated peoples, bribes collected from everyone who must deal with them, exemptions and advantages obtained arbitrarily through their legal and administrative privileges, and other parasitic uses of their public authority. When they do notice other interpretations, they tend to be dismissive, defensive, and sometimes misleading. However, this should not blind policymakers, service designers and practitioners to the substantial morbidity that is posed by flooding. Most people’s psychosocial needs are met through their close relationships with their families, friends and communities; smaller proportions of people are likely to require specialised mental healthcare. We have enough reason to think that both בתולה and עלמה are like our old English word "maiden"— meaning "young woman" in some places or times, and "virgin" in others. Agreeing and using internationally understood definitions of and the thresholds that separate distress, mental health and mental ill health would improve the process of assessing, analysing and comparing research findings. Our central motivation, however, is faithfulness to the original Hebrew text and context in this instance. Willoughby (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947), p. " This requires a revision of the Hebrew consonants in two words ( נגשיו מעולל is changed to נגשים עללו) and a change of the vowel points in another word ( ונשים "and women" is repointed to read "and creditors"). The same explanation is given for אל in Isaiah 9:6. A good example of the latter type is the long note (of about 180 words) at Isaiah 1:23 which explains that the rich people who are so often denounced in the writings of the prophets were not private capitalists, but people who controlled the government bureaucracies. It is clear that there is sufficient evidence available to show that the short- and long-term psychosocial and mental health consequences of flooding should be a high priority for policymakers. The editors of the NET Bible believe that a translation which is ultimately the most faithful to the original text will ultimately prove more useful in both evangelism and ministry by an unswerving focus on accuracy to the original Biblical texts. We also notice that the NIV has "brought me forth," and the NAB has "begot me," which represents another understanding of the Hebrew word. " Although the Introduction does not mention it, seventeen of these people were teachers at DTS; and of the remaining six, five were students at DTS. To the apostles, the words of Scripture were directly inspired by God, and their meaning is not limited to meanings which can be supposed to have been in the minds of the human authors on the basis of historical considerations. " This rendering was already given in the Septuagint, and so Matthew is not introducing it as something new; but there can be no doubt that he uses this word deliberately, because the virginity of Mary is an important aspect of his account of Christ's birth. There are two other groups of people about which healthcare services need to know more: people who develop disorders other than PTSD, which the literature shows is very often co-morbid with other mental disorders; and the wider group of people who are distressed by events, temporarily or otherwise (a highly relevant matter after flooding) and who have psychosocial needs that relate to sustaining their mental health and emotional wellbeing and also preventing their developing mental disorders. Having this view of Scripture, the apostles assumed that its words carried some meanings that point beyond the immediate context, and by the Spirit of God they identified some of them, including a number of mysterious prefigurations of Christ. The name of the version (NET Bible) is meant to have a double meaning, standing both for New English Translation and the electronic "net" of the World Wide Web. Not if he understands the situation there. It is the opinion of the translators and editors that the Hebrew word used in Isaiah 7:14 means “young woman” and actually carries no connotations of sexual experience, so the grammatical context of the verse in the Old Testament is in our opinion fairly straightforward. While a rendering of “virgin” in Isa 7:14 might lead to wider acceptance, we believe that this kind of acceptance of traditional renderings would not be pleasing to God. The authors reviewed recent government policy in England and other governmental and non-governmental guidance documents of international standing as well as relevant papers which offer theoretical standpoints 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64. For one thing, the traditional rendering "possessed" does not indicate any lack of knowledge about recent developments in Hebrew philology. Evidently the people involved in the version have some interest in concealing its "Dallas" connection. ' 26. " By the phrase "reasoned eclecticism" he means the method of textual criticism practiced by most scholars today, including the editors of the Nestle-Aland (UBS) text. This stresses the importance of planning for and providing effective and timely public mental health and clinical responses. In Psalm 1:1 האיש "the man" is inaccurately translated "the one. God is the Author, and like a novelist, he knows the end of the story while he is writing it, and he foreshadows the end in various ways throughout the story, even from the beginning. The effects of flooding on mental health: Outcomes and recommendations from a review of the literature offers a summary of epidemiological research, government and non-government guidance on the effects of flooding on mental health and up-to-date strategies for mitigating the impacts of flooding on affected populations. & T. The opinion presented in the NET Bible is certainly not the opinion of most scholars (see Wildberger's commentary for a brief review of opinions held by modern scholars), and the other views should not have gone unmentioned. The preface of the first "Beta Edition" (printed in 2001) stated that the version was "completed by more than twenty biblical scholars who worked directly from the best currently available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. Much of the literature focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder; diagnosable depressive and anxiety disorders and substance misuse are under-represented in the published data. Does the translator translate the older passage with a view to the clarification that the later passage brings, or does the translator concentrate solely on the native context of the older passage? It is in just such instances that marginal comment would be useful. It also allows psychosocial care and mental healthcare to be planned and delivered in integrated ways that follow the trajectories of the needs of people who require them. They should work with the agencies that are responsible for managing the environments in which people live to achieve these aims because measures for preventing floods can reduce the health impacts on populations. And although the translators probably feel that their prosaic rendering here adequately conveys the overall sense of the verse, it should be noticed that their rendering involves not only the loss of poetic imagery, but also a preclusion of the New Testament's interpretation of the verse. Furthermore, the wider literature shows that the experiences of people who are dlya resume distressed in the aftermath of all disasters including floods, are not always easy to distinguish from the symptoms of common mental disorders. ) Perhaps some of the NET Bible annotators write this way only because in the sort of books they read this is how writers normally refer to the authors of the New Testament. These findings support the requirement for a public mental health approach to flooding that comprises both universal and targeted plans and interventions, which are well coordinated with adequate, timely access for people in need as well as long-term availability of specialist care for a sizeable minority of affected people. It reminds us of a similar statement made in the introduction of the Jesus Seminar's version of the Gospels: The Scholars Version is free of ecclesiastical and religious control, unlike other major translations into English, including the King James Version and its descendants (Protestant), the Douay-Rheims Version and its progeny (Catholic), and the New International Version (Evangelical).... If we look at the most recent edition of the Koehler-Baumgartner lexicon (2001), we find that it does not give two different roots. It does not make sense to attach such an apparatus to a version intended for uneducated readers. That is, that the revelation given to the OT author is not entirely understood by the NT writer who uses and interprets his text. The truth is, women have no problem with "blessed is the man ... One bright spot in the version is the rendering of John do critique literature review 1:1, in which the phrase καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος is translated "and the Word was fully God," and a translator's note explains that here the anarthrous pedicate noun θεὸς (God) bears a qualitative meaning; i. Some of their conjectural emendations are of the highly speculative kind that one rarely sees in Bible versions, though they are seen often enough in modern critical commentaries. Some of them have no publications, and are little-known outside of DTS. 377; Greek PG 26:260). This theological development progresses even further when another child is promised in Isaiah 9:6-7 who will be a perfect ruler over Israel, manifesting God’s presence perfectly and ultimately among his people. This is because of limited availability of population comparisons, and before and after evaluation studies. Org. The NET Bible note here rightly suggests that those whose have grown rich in this way should not be confused with those who have gained wealth by productive enterprises in a free market system. The relation of this reality to translation work creates a great deal of tension, especially as it relates to the theological context, because certain earlier passages are clarified by later ones. For example, in Mark 1:17 the generic masculine ανθρωπων in "I will make you fishers of men" is neutralized with the rendering "I will turn you into fishers of people. Their conception of "the theological context" takes no account of any divine intention beyond what is clearly intended by the human author; as the preface defines it, the "theological context" is limited to "the understanding of God and his work that a particular author would have at the time he wrote a particular passage of scripture. Romans 1:5 in the NET Bible reads, "Through him we have received grace and our apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles. That is, since in the former case we must argue from a chronological and historical perspective to erase the contradiction, is that not also valid in the case of one biblical writer misunderstanding the full import of an earlier one? The explanation for it in the preface is facile and theologically inadequate. Children, young people and older people may be more vulnerable than are adults of working age because they are dependent on adults’ responses to the floods that affect families. " As for the opinions of Arius and Athanasius, these pertain not to the Hebrew word קנה, but to the Septuagint's Κυριος εκτισεν με αρχην οδων αυτου εις εργα αυτου ("the Lord made me the beginning of his ways for his works"). The result is, readers cannot interpret the passage according to the interpretation indicated in the New Testament. In a pinch, they adopt an easier reading from the Dead Sea Scrolls, or a reading indicated by the ancient versions, or a conjectural emendation. The HPA’s findings showed that a multi-sector approach that involves communities as well as agencies is the best way to promote wellbeing and recovery. In 2 Peter 1:1 we find the rendering "our God and Savior Jesus Christ. Nor is it true that this is "merely a question of which is the most faithful English rendering of the meaning of the original text of Isa 7:14 in Hebrew. The rendering in the NRSV and NAB, which fits much better in the context). Importantly, their advice fits well with the evidence that emerged from the literature review and which is reviewed in the HPA’s report. " Yet it seems very doubtful that any Christian woman needs the "man" neutered here before she can apply the teaching of this Psalm to herself. " Is the progress of revelation along linear lines, or is it more multifaceted than that? Many people experience distress that may be relatively transient after any disaster and being distressed temporarily is not antithetical to people also being resilient. " Obviously this explanation presents some problems for our view of the truthfulness and inspiration of Scripture. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews depends upon a literal rendering of Psalm 8 when he uses it to teach something about a certain man, namely Christ (Heb. He did not reveal everything about himself and what he was doing in the world all at once; instead he graciously revealed more and more as time went on. It is associated with the belief in biblical inerrancy, which was rejected by scholars in the liberal seminaries more than a century ago. The editors do not seem to realize how insulting it is when they imply that Christian women need or want such patronizing adjustments of the text. Ultimately, it is our faith in our sovereign God that causes us to believe that faith is strengthened, not threatened, by faithfulness to the original. A smaller proportion of people is likely to require referral for specialised mental healthcare. And his dismissal of the rendering "virgin" is quite arbitrary, because the conservative literature on this matter is extensive, and many competent scholars have maintained that "virgin" is the best rendering. It recognized its inspiration no doubt. The entire Patristic period is uniform in its testimony that the Old Testament belongs to the Church because it is a Christian book. The gender-neutral language in the NET Bible is moderate when compared to some other recent Bible versions, such as the TNIV. It would have been helpful if the editors were to have given some examples of what they have in mind here, but we must suppose that it is not so much "ecclesiastical control," as the influence of Christian theology in general. Some of the "tn" notes show an annoying tendency to defend the translation by associating other interpretations with mere ignorance of the languages, or with theological agendas. The preface states that the idea for the version was conceived in November 1995 during discussions with an anonymous "sponsor" at the Society of Biblical Literature meeting in Philadelphia. But it is true of Christ, who, although he descended to Hades (the "Pit") for a time, did not experience corruption or decay. Since then, a new government has been elected in the UK and health policy for public mental health matters has been taken forward by the strategy titled No Health Without Mental Health 6. The NET Bible's renderings here are based upon the translator's opinion about what fits best in the immediate context. This dynamic process yields a Bible that is honest to the original text of the Bible, yet valuable and acceptable to Bible readers everywhere. " We do not get the do critique literature review impression that the writer of this note thinks that John must be credited with historical accuracy. Regarding the "parallel ideas" or contextual indications, he says that they "argue for the translation of 'create' or 'establish'" for the Hebrew word קנה, but we see a very different opinion expressed by Bruce Metzger: Regarding נסכתי in verse 23, which is translated "I was appointed" in the NET Bible, a note says only "it is not a common word; it occurs here and in Ps 2:6 for the coronation of the king. And in connection with them, can we not speak of a "fuller sense" intended by God from the beginning? " Again, the interpretation in Hebrews 2:7 was not a factor in their decision. Flooding can challenge the psychosocial resilience of the hardiest of people who are affected. Men, on the other hand, are much less inclined to take things personally, and almost need to be addressed by name before they will apply something to themselves. We concluded that it was important to include the extensive data on the mental health of people affected by hurricanes because of the health impacts of the floods immediately following Hurricane Katrina. " Some who lack a formal education in Christian theology might prefer the paradoxical traditional rendering, and might think that the explanation given in the note weakens the theological force of the statement, but in fact the NET Bible here not only expresses the meaning more accurately, but also happens to be more in line with the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. " (17) Interestingly enough, Appendix A of the printed edition states, "the Greek text to be used by individual translators was decided by the textual consultant. Wallace says that the NET text differs from the Nestle-Aland text "in about 500 places. The intention was to identify documents in the public domain that outline, directly or by implication, models of care for responding to the psychosocial and mental health impacts of disasters in general and, if possible, flooding in particular. The translators have for the most part employed a dynamic equivalence method, in which they have tried to use expressions in "common language. The result is that, first, less research has been conducted on the psychosocial needs of people who are distressed rather than disordered. But the argument of the note is rather tepid: "It thus appears possible to argue for two seperate cleansings of the Temple as well as a single one relocated by John to suit his purposes," but it "appears somewhat more probable that John has placed the event he records in the approximate period of Jesus' public ministry in which it do occur. write essay for students The traditional manner of explaining the relationship between 1:1–2:3 and the narrative that follows it is thought to be not only wrong but intolerably gauche. But it does seem odd for those who are convinced that the New Testament books are the authentic writings of the apostles. Recognition of the longer timeframe in which adequate welfare, psychosocial and mental healthcare responses are required is an important lesson that has been learned from floods in the past, and that lesson is supported strongly by the findings from the review. The intervening "development" that Matthew "draws upon" cannot "change the meaning of Isaiah 7:14 in its original context. (Heb. Allen Paul Wikren, "A Critique of the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament" in The Study of the Bible Today and Tomorrow, edited by Harold R. 34-35 Paul is only saying that women should refrain from speaking while the men of the congregation were "evaluating the prophets," during some period of critical discussion about the prophecies given in the Corinthian worship services. As regards people who develop mental disorders, risk factors and co-variants did not a have a constant association with poorer mental health across all the studies, partly due to methodological differences and partly because of the unique characteristics of each flood. Most of these resemble the notes found in study Bibles intended for laymen (e. The requirements of academic respectability are really quite elaborate, and many of these stem from the demands of political correctness. 2:7-8), to whom these statements are referred, because He is the only man for whom they are true in the fullest sense. Evidently it pleases them to think that in the absence of such influence, scholars will still tend to interpret the Bible rightly. " Other Examples We could discuss many other examples of this tendency to translate the Old Testament without regard for the New Testament. In this regard, we were greatly assisted by advice from experts. But evidently this seminary has changed quite a bit since then. Critique ( krɪˈtiːk) All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This health intelligence should inform the preparedness of healthcare agencies and their practical plans. Even among Roman Catholics, the bishop's imprimatur has become a rubber-stamp for anything the scholars want to publish. But faithful Christians did not follow Marcion; they received and treasured the Old Testament scriptures as interpreted by the apostles. The NIV Study Bible), but some go deeper, and resemble the comments one finds in scholarly introductions. Those who are ambitious for academic respectability will not flout the reigning orthodoxies of their environment. The method is "eclectic" in that readings are chosen from a variety of witnesses and text-types, and "reasoned" in that it generally prefers older manuscripts which are judged to be superior. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change are likely to increase the occurrence of flooding. The authors collected evidence through a systematic review of the literature that was published between 2004 and 2010. Arguably, the strongest pressures and temptations for Bible translators—most of whom are employed as professors—come from within their academic environment. " Nevertheless, they translate it as if it were gender-neutral, so as to "facilitate modern application. The same thing occurs in Proverbs 7:1 and following. We should like to see evidence that any reader who is capable of understanding the metaphorical usage of "fishers" here would be so dense as to think that "fishers of men" means that Jesus is calling Simon and Andrew to become evangelists of male adults only. The reliability of the Hebrew text is moreover a point of traditional Protestant teaching, and although it seems to be out of favor now at Dallas, we should like to see it maintained. The use of Isaiah 7:14 in Matthew 1:23 draws upon the theological development present in the book of Isaiah, but it does not change the meaning of Isaiah 7:14 in its original context. But its notes do not interact with other likely interpretations in a decent way, and they fail even to mention some of them. G. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Org website. But again, regardless of the motives for it, it makes little difference whether the plural of ανθρωπος is translated "men" or "people" in most places. 4 million others 1. , 15, 17f. This interpretation does not rest upon ignorance of Hebrew, or upon false principles of exegesis, as the preface insinuates (we can only suppose that the editors have come by these opinions and attitudes through spending too much time at meetings of the Society of Biblical Literature); on the contrary, it is inspired by God and infallible. 13). (9) The preface uses the phrase "traditional renderings" in reference to this, as if it were merely a matter of tradition, but it should not be forgotten that the real issue here is the legitimacy of the interpretation in Matthew 1:23. " In addition to the statements on this subject in the preface, there is a fuller explanation for at least one of the editors' understanding of "progressive revelation" in a paper written by Daniel Wallace (the Senior New Testament Editor), and posted on the bible. Is there evidence within the text of scripture that addresses some of the above questions? " The copyright page of the printed edition does not say where "Biblical Studies Press" is located, but from other sources we learn that its offices are in Garland, Texas—a suburb of Dallas. In Genesis 22:18 we see "all the nations of the earth will pronounce blessings on one another using the name of your descendants" instead of a literal rendering, "in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed," but the New Testament interpretations of this promise (cf. The editors should not imagine that they have been "responsible to the universal body of Christ" when they merely invite people to send email to their website. That policy sustains the general approach in New Horizons and affords prominence to developing people’s resilience and preventing people from developing mental disorders. We have "poured forth" in the NAB, "poured out" in the Berkeley version, "fashioned" in the NEB, JPS, and NIV margin, "formed" in the REB, etc. In addition to format and content, the broad framework of the project is unique among translations. Methods Two main types of source were used to examine the effects of flooding on people’s mental health. " In a footnote to this paper, he wrote, "For my own take on the difference between Paul and the other New Testament writers, see my essay, 'Is Intra-Canonical Theological Development Consistent with a High Bibliology? The key themes that emerge from this guidance include: The Strategic Stepped Model of Care allows planners to take into account sources of personal and collective social support, and how responses to events are developed. " Wallace develops the idea that "implicit in the recognition of progressive revelation is that something more than mere perspectival differences are to be found in the various books of the Bible," and he suggests that "later biblical writers did not always correctly grasp the meaning of earlier revelation. (4) This is a sensus plenior interpretation, it is esoteric in nature, and it partly depends upon the singular nouns and pronouns of the Hebrew text. " instead, for the "Common Era. Although the editors seem to hope that their version will be "acceptable to Bible readers everywhere," they must know that it will not be acceptable to conservatives as long as they persist in this treatment of the Old Testament. In 2009-2010, the Department of Health for England asked the HPA to contribute to its New Horizons: A shared vision for mental health policy 5. E. If we believe that these are the words of God, and if we believe that Christ is "the child who would be the ultimate fulfillment" of the prophecy, we cannot set aside Matthew's interpretation, and interpret the Immanuel prophecy as if it were only "a sign for King Ahaz that the alliance between Syria and Israel which was threatening the land of Judah would come to nothing. , Edinburgh: T. Also, whatever the relative contribution of flooding as a causative agent, floods are likely to bring people’s pre-existing disorders to presentation. " The Hebrew word שחת ( shachat) is translated not "Pit" but διαφθοράν "corruption" here, (11) and Peter points out that this statement is not true of David, because in fact his body has decayed. Numbers 1:2), they will naturally suppose that the numbers given in this chapter include the women. But the wording of the prohibition is much too absolute and emphatic for such a limitation of its meaning, and nothing in the context suggests that it was intended to be understood in this way. The timing of the studies, relative to the flood considered by the do critique literature review research, varied from data collected pre-event, to data collected after zero to two weeks, and up to eight years after flooding. First, a review of the published academic literature and, second, guidance from governmental, non-governmental and other authoritative sources and selected papers that describe how services might be mounted in response to people’s psychosocial and mental health needs after flooding. ). As Patrick Fairbairn expressed it: The whole approach to Scripture here may be compared to John's interpretation of the words of Caiaphas in John 11:49-52. Second, the canon of research has tended to neglect the crucial wider and, sometimes, more prevalent morbidity that is found in all populations, including that which affects people who are involved in flooding. But this way of putting the question is misleading, because the "clarifications" of the New Testament are no ordinary clarifications. There is a long "sn" note (of about 1,000 words) at John 2:14, in favor of the conservative view that there were two cleansings of the Temple by Christ, one at the beginning of his ministry (reported by John) and one at the end (described by Matthew, Mark and Luke). " The development is said to be underway in the Book of Isaiah itself, where some real messianic prophecies do occur, yet we are given to understand that the Immanuel prophecy is not messianic, and so Matthew's interpretation of it is not really correct. 393. From its beginning the project has been independent of ecclesiastical control. Because the version was primarily designed to be an Internet resource, the editors have freedom to experiment with and revise the version as they may see fit. The "sn" note at 1 Corinthians 14:34 also reflects an apologetic agenda. Professional scholars are not immune from peer pressure; they are exposed to the influence of hermeneutical fads, intellectual bandwagons, and conventional thinking; they are no more independent of such influences than are the pastors of the churches, or the laymen in the pews. When considering PTSD, findings reveal that the symptoms may not decline over time as quickly as was thought previously. 20. Development of evidence-based policy in this area should be a priority for people who are responsible for planning for and responding to emergencies, healthcare, social care, and mental healthcare services. Government departments should work together to achieve integrated policies in order to avoid ‘recovery gaps,’ i. The words "in Ephesus" are omitted by some early manuscripts, and the note offers one explanation which involves the assumption that Paul wrote the epistle; but it informs readers that the Pauline authorship is "strongly contested today. ," but we will not learn his meaning from the NET Bible's translation of Hosea 6:6, because in it the word chesed is rendered "faithfulness," not "mercy," and there is no explanation for it in the notes (see also Matthew 12:7). The questions, comments, and feedback received from them are examined very carefully, and the translation and notes are reevaluated in response. But if this supposition is valid, then it implies that later biblical writers did not always correctly grasp the meaning of earlier revelation. But all other English versions have adhered to the Masoretic text in Isaiah 3:12-13, and for good reasons. Readers of the NET Bible will encounter some surprising renderings based upon these emendations. Raymond E. A typical example is in Isaiah 3:12, where we find the rendering "Oppressors treat my people cruelly; creditors rule over them. The majority of the studies were cross-sectional. But a sheer appeal to the inspiration of the Old Testament without the profound conviction that it was a Christian book would not have made its case. The NET Bible has some good features. There is absolutely no doubt that this conviction stemmed from the manner in which our Lord and his apostles used the Old Testament. " The translators of these modern versions were not ignorant, they simply disagreed with the idea that the word means "create" here. Daniel Wallace reports that the NET Bible's New Testament is based on "a critically constructed Greek text, following the principles of reasoned eclecticism. Importantly, this paper offers a short version of the critique that appears in the HPA’s report concerning recent peer-reviewed literature and authoritative guidance for delivering responses to peoples’ needs for psychosocial and mental health care. " They were identified only as scholars who "teach biblical exegesis in seminaries and graduate schools," each of whom were "chosen in every instance because of his or her work in that particular book—often extending over several decades. The New Testament has been substantially revised since its first appearance, incorporating many suggestions made by reviewers associated with the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL). " Where such rules prevail, those who believe that the Bible is non-contradictory and inerrant have no place, and those who would dare to interpret the Bible in accordance with this belief are far outside the pale of respectability. For example, the note on verse 3 discusses "the author's intention," and draws certain conclusions about what "the author seems to be" saying. Matthew 2:15), the editors tell us that they have retained the "my son" of the Masoretic text here "because of internal evidence; it is much more appropriate to the context" than the reading "his sons," which is indicated by the Septuagint. " This argument cannot be made on the basis of the NET Bible's rendering. The problems raised by these statements should be dealt with forthrightly; they cannot be set aside by some facile appeal to the authority of nameless "theologians" (6) We can indeed no longer imagine that the OT writers were given a miraculous 'preview' of the events of the life and death of Jesus, or that detailed predictions of his ministry and passion were divinely dictated to them; nor shall we look for precise fulfilments of particular OT texts, as writers in the pre-critical period have done ever since the days of the author of St. Wallace does not explain how such ideas can be reconciled with a belief that the Scriptures are verbally and plenarily inspired. There is a lack of studies which have investigated the impact of flooding on the mental health of children, young people and older people. " This method gives the version a simple and contemporary English style, which may be appreciated by some readers; but it does tend to degrade the accuracy of the translation. Most studies exploring the effects of flooding on common mental disorders came from high or middle-income countries, and results revealed significant increases in depression, anxiety and psychological distress among flooded adults; relatively few studies examined the effects of flooding on children, but those that did revealed increases in aggression, bedwetting and moderate to severe stress symptoms. Athanasius lays out his interpretation of Proverbs 8:22 in a very long discussion of the verse in his Second Discourse against the Arians. 22f. And when we examine the explanations that the NET Bible editors give for specific renderings, their explanations reveal that they do not really believe that the New Testament writers provide clarifications; they believe that the New Testament writers have imposed meanings upon Old Testament passages which were not originally intended. (13) Even fifty years ago, no scholar who wished to be taken seriously in conservative churches would have contradicted Ramm's statement that "If an Old Testament scholar says that a given passage meant so-and-so to the Jews (on the grounds that the passage must have meaning to its contemporaries) and limits its meaning to that meaning, he is misapplying the cultural principle and denying the sensus plenior of Old Testament prophecy. The concept of psychosocial resilience, with its personal and collective components, points to the importance of mitigating the distressing effects as well as the social and health risks posed by flooding. They may be compared to the notes in Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament or in Rienecker's Linguistic Key to the New Testament. Ultimately, our decision regarding the appropriate rendering in Isaiah 7:14 depends upon our judgment of what word best conveys the author's meaning, and we judge that "virgin" belongs in this place. The New Horizons policy states that mental health problems are common as are mental disorders that spring from environmental as well as physical and social risks. In an article published in 2000, one of the editors stated that there had been thousands of such changes, (1) and many more were to be made in the future. Note, however, that critique is widely accepted as a noun in a neutral context; 86 percent of the Panel approved of its use in the sentence The committee gave the report a thorough critique and found it both informed and intelligent. Gaps in societal responses that arise in the period after the emergency responses have ended when people must rely on the services that are available ordinarily in communities to support their continuing recovery 63. Gresham Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1930). Coastal flooding is likely to threaten up to 1. As Wallace points out, the traditional English rendering "the Word was God" might suggest a kind of Sabellian (modalistic) Unitarianism. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. Neither does the historical context of Isaiah 7:14 point to any connection with the birth of the Messiah: in its original historical context, this verse was pointing to a sign for King Ahaz that the alliance between Syria and Israel which was threatening the land of Judah would come to nothing. The authors identify the implications of their review for policymakers, the responsible government agencies, and health and social care services. This understanding of the word is also reflected in the CEV rendering "from the beginning I was with the Lord. There it becomes apparent that this is a father-son talk about matters which are very far from being gender-neutral, and which have no relevance to a "child" of either sex. But, when compared with other types of disaster, the mortality may be interpreted as low when floods occur in well-prepared areas of the world. Nearly all modern versions have been produced by committees which answer only to publishers, to non-denominational Bible societies, or to liberal churchmen who show little interest in perpetuating traditional dogma. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) undertook a review of the literature published from 2004 to 2010. Simply put, progressive revelation recognizes that God reveals himself—his nature as well as his word, plans, and purposes—over time. We think a tendency to emend an already intelligible text that is supported by the oldest manuscripts indicates a lack of critical tact and modesty—and perhaps also an overly pessimistic view of the preservation of the text in existing manuscripts. They do not unfold meanings which can be readily attributed to the conscious intentions of the human authors. Most of the versions currently in use among Protestants were produced by committees which were not subject to any regular church authority. (3) In the example above, from Psalm 8, the New Testament writer does not interpret the Psalm's statements about the "son of man" in the way that the NET Bible does. Marcion—the arch-heretic of the second century—refused to accept the apostolic interpretations of the Old Testament, and (consistently enough) he erased quotations of the Old Testament from his copies of the New Testament. 5f. While that is valuable, it is also accompanied by a relative neglect of the crucial wider background morbidity that is found in all populations, including after disasters. " It is like saying that Shakespeare could not have meant the same thing as "virgin" when he used the words "maid" and "maiden. We perceive that the expectations of a proper Christian application of the text—even when they carry the credentials of the New Testament—are bluntly rejected and ignored, while the demands associated with modern feminism get respectful attention, and a degree of paraphrastic accommodation. Like other theologians of his time, he identifies Wisdom with Christ, and he explains that when Christ is said to be created or formed, "His forming signifies not his beginning of being but his taking manhood" ( NPNF, 2nd series, 4. There is not even any indication in the context (or anywhere else in early Christian literature) that a critical "evaluation of the prophets" session took place during Christian worship services. " (26) This criticism was not ignored by the RSV committee. G. In recent years this principle has been invoked to justify all sorts of distortions of the text. Cf. In Matthew 9:13 our Lord refers to Hosea 6:6 when he says to the Pharisees, "go and learn what this means, I desire mercy ... In ancient times only the heretics who rejected the Old Testament interpreted it in this manner. " We are given a rather opaque argument that tries to explain Matthew's use of Isaiah 7:14 while condemning "virgin" as a translation of the Hebrew word. But this use of critique is still regarded by many as pretentious jargon, although resistance appears to be weakening.